Study session - April. 2011

Armour

Italian or possibly south german elbows

Italian or possibly south german elbows circa 1510

With associated arm pieces. Both for the left arm. Each with gutter shaped upper cannon (one restored), boldly formed couter with flanged upper and lower edges. One incised with a line. Tapering lower cannon cut with a long slot to accomadate the hand defences. Italian, or possibly south German. From the collections of the Counts Schenk von Stauffenberg. Similar ones are preserved in Madonna Delle Grazie - Mantova, and the Tower (from Rhodes)

Maximum width of the wing 8 in. 5 5/8 in. at the back edge. From center of elbow crease to point of cop 7 1/4 in.

Measurements of the slightly larger copy with beveled edge - thickness of the wing area .022-.030 in. back of the cop mostly .030, some areas down to .025, others up to .052 in. front of cop mostly .040-.050 in. [inv. num. A-63]

German floating Elbow

German floating Elbow circa 1520

Simple "Maximilian" form. Rounded flutes accented by engraved lines. 2 nearly identical elbows are in the Fitzwilliam collection (no.s HEN.M.135A-1933 and HEN.M.135B-1933). From the R.T. Gwynn collection. [inv. num. A-58]

Elbow (couter)

Elbow (couter) circa 1500

Floating form designed for use with a central peg securing it to a strap connecting the upper and lower vambrace. Clam shell form with one flute above and below the center and raised border over most of the outer edge. Ex. col. Dr. John Waldman. [inv. num. A-148]

German Black and White Elbow

German Black and White Elbow mid 16th cent.

Elbow cop. Floating (originally held to the arm with a strap and buckle around the elbow and a pin suspending if from the upper arm). Decorated with raised foliage against a rough background (likely originally blackened). Raised areas with simple etched decoration. Recessed border with high quality etched decoration of foliage with "dot" background. This elbow was claimed to have been formerly in the collection of Stephen Granscay. [inv. num. A-96]

Elbow cop

Elbow cop circa 1560-90

Of bracelet form with inward turned finely roped rolls along the edges with a parallel recessed border and additional recessed line. Formed of one piece joined at the center of the wing. The cop rises to a blunt crease at the center. This cop would have have been secured to the vambrace by a leather strip secured to the pairs of rivets in the middle of the front and back of the cop. The roping on the edge changes direction at the widest part of the wing at the front and the back. The transistion includes two lines that go straight across the roll. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Maximum width of the wing 7 in. width at the center of the cop 4 3/4 in. inner part of wing to point 6 3/4 in.

Thickness varies significantly - it is thickest at the point where it reaches .070, most of the rest of the area is .040-.060. There are some thin areas which measure .030. [inv. num. A-176]

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of a large plate above and 4 small plates below the main plate. The top plate articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. The upper, front and back edges of the large pauldron plates with inward turned roped rolls and a recessed border. The inner half of the lowest plate with an inward turned and roped roll. The cop open at the back (not a full bracelet) with inward turned, roped turns at the edges. The turns are accompanied by a recessed border on the wing. The center of the cop with a raised roped ridge. The vambrace of two pieces secured by two leather strips at the back and a pin at the front. Inward turned roped rolls at the wrist and the inside of the upper edge at the elbow. Decorative rosettes on the pauldron and elbow. In uncleaned condition from an English household. [inv. num. A-163]

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of 2 large plates above and 4 small plates below the large central plate. The top, front and back edge of the upper plates and the bottom edge of the lowest plate with roped inward turned roll and a parallel recessed border. The to plates articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. The elbow of bracelet form with inward turns along the edge. Cop of rounded form with a raised central ridge. This cop is formed of 2 pieces. The rounded cop and front wing and a smaller secondary plate forming the inner wing. The vambrace is formed of 2 plates hinged by 2 internal leathers at the front and a pin on the inner plate engaging a hole in the outer plate at the back. The cop and pauldron with rivets with brass rosette washers. The pauldron, cop and vambrace are secured by 2 vertical leather strips riveted to the cop and slotted onto rivets in the pauldron and vambrace. In uncleaned condition from an English household. [inv. num. A-164]

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1580

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames. The upper and lower are secured by rivets which slide on long slots in the lower plate. The top edge of the turner is bordered by a narrow outward-turned roped roll . Where the plates overlap the roll is stepped to that it fits cleanly when fully extended. The two turner plates are overlapped, riveted and stepped so that the seam is flush on the outside. The cop of bracelet form which joins at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside (secured by 3 rivets on each side) and two pins on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. These have a typical Brunswick form with a crease along the outside. Most main rivets with dapped brass caps, many of them with rosette washers. There is a small clip on the inside of the turner which would secure the pauldron strap. Ex. Royal House of Hanover. [inv. num. A-171]

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1580

Right arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 2 lames. The upper and lower are secured by a raised, roped ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flair in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the inside - the center of the flair - with a single lame above and below. The vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside and two pins on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. Many of the rivets - primarily those on the visible side - are capped with dapped brass caps. The four outer (visible) articulation rivets have brass rosette washers. The arm has a typical Brunswick form with a crease along the outside. There is a small clip on the inside of the turner which would secure the pauldron strap. Ex. Royal House of Hanover. [inv. num. A-172]

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1600

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames, the upper lame retains 3 rivets which secured a leather tab to lace the arm to the sleeve. The upper and lower are secured by a raised ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flair in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by two external hinges on the inside and a pin on the outside. The main edges with inward turns. The surface is rough from the hammer with remains of oxide finish. There is a pin on the outside of the main plate of the turner to secure the arm to the pauldron and a rivet on the inside securing a piece of leather that would originally have been a loop to secure the pauldron strap. The main edges are decorated with incised lines. Many of the rivets retain dapped brass caps. Ex. Royal House of Hanover. [inv. num. A-173]

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1600

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames. The upper and lower are secured by a raised, roped ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flair in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace of slight tubular form constructed from an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside and a pin on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. The surface is rough from the hammer with remains of oxide finish. There is a pin on the outside of the main plate of the turner to secure the arm to the pauldron. The main edges are decorated with incised lines. Many of the original rivets with dapped brass caps remain. The upper plate retains the leather tab used to secure the arm to the arming doublet. The hole at the inside of the turner plate would have secured a leather loop to secure the pauldron strap. The cop is cracked in 2 places. Ex. Royal House of Hanover. [inv. num. A-174]

Pauldron

Pauldron circa 1480-1500

Main plate from a pauldron. One piece with radiating flutes in the back, parallel horizontal flutes at the top and vertical flutes in the front. Together with a modern copy made as a mate. This was in the Granscay collection, the well made mate was likely made by the armourers at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The original has significant modern patches riveted inside. [inv. num. A-68]

Pair of Cuisses

Pair of Cuisses circa 1550

A pair. Consisting of a one piece cuisse shaped to the thigh with central crease and bold inward turned roped roll at the top. Poleyn of 4 plates, the cop deeply dished with a large wing on the outside, wing with inward turned roped rolled edge. One small articulating lame above and below the cop and a terminal plate with an inward turned roped roll on the bottom edge. Some old repairs - one cop has a patched hole and one has the wing re-attached. A nice example of a plain armour of the mid 16th century. In uncleaned condition from an English household. [inv. num. A-162]

Pair of knee length tassets

Pair of knee length tassets circa 1560-70

Black and white. Formed of eight lames with detachable poleyns of 4 lames. The tassets are divisible between the fourth and fifth lames. The bright band at the center is bordered by narrow recesses, the borders on the side are recessed with a narrow raised edge simulating a roll on the outside and a small roped inward turned roll on the inside. There are white bands down the middle and on each side. There are three buckles on each for suspension from the fauld. The segments are secured by keyhole slots and pins on the outside and pins with hooks on the inside. Decorated with original brass rosette washers and a few replaced pewter rosettes. There are remains of a leather strap at the edge of the outside. This would have been used to limit the motion of the sliding rivets or possibly to secure a lining. The image of the separate pieces of the right tasset with the poleyn from the outside shows the knee at full bend. Both tassets include marks which are likely to identify the matching tassets among others - 7 punched marks on the lowest lame of each section that separates and on the wing of the cop. Ex. Royal house of Hanover. [inv. num. A-181]

Cuisse with poleyn

Cuisse with poleyn circa 1580

Comprising a one-piece cuisse with poleyn of 4 plates. The cop of deeply rounded form with a small wing. The edge of the cop rises to a point at the center, the outer edge of the lames are cut to form a point in the center and points over the rivets. The top edge of the cuisse, wing and bottom plate with inward-turned rolled roped edges. The rolls are fairly even, the one on the top of the cuisse does taper a little bit. The rolls on the edge of the cop wing are full rolls on the flat portion of the wing but they flatten out and finally disappear in the indented area. The cuisse is shaped to the thigh, creased at the center and has an additional raised and roped line parallel to the top edge. The leg has a band of etched decoration in the form of a set of trophies of armour flanked by roped bands along the center line. The band between the top roll and roped line is etched with a foliate design. The edges of the cop and lame are filed with a simple roped decoration and have notches at the center crease. There are single filed notches on the inner ends of the cop, lame, lower plate and cuisse. The image of the leg with the knee bent illustrates the extent of motion allowed by the armour (almost, it does move a little more under pressure). Strap mounting rivets remain near the top of the cuisse and on the cop. The lower lame has a central slot to be secured to the greave.

Height 14 1/4 in. tall.

Generally varies between .030 and .050 inch thick, mostly .035-.040 in. with some places where it is as thin as .020 in. on the lower plate. [inv. num. A-169]

Greaves and Sabatons

Greaves and Sabatons circa 1580

The greaves formed of two plates front and back formed to the leg hinged on the outside and secured by pins on the inside. Each with a sabaton of 9 plates (4 small plates overlapping a larger center plate then 3 smaller and terminal plate overlapping the central plate in the other direction) with terminal plate of boxed form turned over at the front and sides. Main plates creased at the center of the front and back. Sabatons creased at the center of the 4 plates closest to the greave, the crease ending in the main central plate. Small inward-turned, roped rolls formed around a wire at the bottom of the greave plates and very small, fine outward turned roll at the top of the back plate (behind the knee). The rear plate pierced with a hole for the spur. An additional plate rivetted into the inside of the plate to provide a threaded attachment for the spurs. 2 hinges on the outside of each greave. Hinges fully wrapped. The barrels cut into 4 sections (2 on each side). The ends rounded and filed to form simple flowers. Stamped with curved accents to emphasize the shape. Attached to the front and rear by one rivet each. Sabaton plates attached by sliding rivets at each side and originally 2 leather straps (one on each side of the instep, most of the inner remaining on both). Remains of leather strap in the base of the toe plate to secure sabaton to the shoe. 18 in. tall. Sabaton 11 3/4 in. from the back of the heel to the front of the toe. 80 painted inside the back plate of the right greave. From the George F. Harding Collection [inv. num. A-124]

German Gauntlet (part)

German Gauntlet (part) circa 1490-1500

Finger, knuckle and 1 1/2 metacarpal plates of a german gothic mitten gauntlet. The finger lames are fluted so simulate fingers, the knuckle plate with rounded and creased knuckles. The first metacarpal plate is fluted with v-shaped puckers to accomadate the flutes in the knuckle and finger lames. There is half of the hinge used to attach the thumb plate, and half of the second metacarpal plate remaining. Each of the articulations is formed with sliding rivets. 2 rivets have been lost, the parts held together by bolts. Formerly in the collection of Leonard Heinrich - armourer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. [inv. num. A-47]

Gauntlets

Gauntlets late 15th cent.

Gauntlets. Nicely formed "gothic" gauntlets typical of the late 15th century. Fluted, engraved and pierced overall. Formed of a large metacarpal plate joined to a wrist lame by another, smaller lame. The cuff is also attached to the wrist lame. These plates are attached with sliding rivets allowing the wrist to flex in all directions. The knuckle plate is formed into a blunt point over each knuckle. The fingers are covered by 4 articulated plates fluted over each of the fingers. These gauntlets have been cleaned and re-assembled, but they are basically a complete pair of gauntlets. The thumbs have been restored and the left cuff is associated. Thickness varies .020-.033 in. Generally thinner in the cuff and back of hand. [inv. num. A-98]

2 Gauntlets

2 Gauntlets circa 1530-40

2 Gauntlets. Almost forming a pair. Both mid 16th century mitten gauntlets with 2 piece cuffs opening on a hinge and secured by a pin. The metacarpals formed of several small plates and one larger plate. The knuckle bows formed with a raised, roped ridge. Fingers covered by articulated plates, the terminal plates with roped and recessed borders. Thumbs protected by a large plate covering the base of the thumb secured to metacarpal by a hinge, with smaller plates secured to leather covering the remainder of the thumbs. Both terminal thumb plates with simulated finger nails. The Fitzwilliam collection in Cambridge contains a very similar pair of gauntlets (no. HEN.M.141-1933. [inv. num. A-104]

Mitten Gauntlet

Mitten Gauntlet late 16th century

Of russet steel. From the George F. Harding Collection, previously ex collection Henry Griffith Keasby [inv. num. A-122]

Italian Gauntlets

Italian Gauntlets circa 1550-1580

A pair of fingered gauntlets. Pointed cuffs of one piece with a central crease and joined at the inside of the wrist by 2 flush rivets. The seam stepped so that the outside is flush. The cuff is flared evenly thoughout its length. The outer edge of the cuff is bordered by a roped inward roll and a recessed border. The border includes a raised central ridge. The roll, central ridge and recessed border with single engraved lines. The back of hand is formed of 4 narrow plates toward the wrist and one wider plate at the knuckle. Each of the plates has a central crease with a notch in the edge aligned with the crease and a pair of incised lines parallel to the visible edge. The ends of the metacarpal plates have a shallow semi-circular extension with a small notch cut at the end of the extension. The extension allows the rivets to be mostly aligned with the edge of the plates. The knuckles are covered by a single plate with a central raised and roped ridge and the outer edge is shaped to the fingers. Thumbs of one large plate with a raised central tear-drop and scales covering the thumb. The main thumb plate is attached to the larger metacarpal plate by a hinge with one rivet on each end. The metacarpal plates are slightly boxed. Small finger and thumb plates replaced. Fingers re-leathered. Rivets replaced. Cleaned over-all. Cuff at the wrist roughly three and one half inches in diameter. Outer edge of the cuff tear-drop shaped 6 inches by 5 one half inches. Cuff 5 inches long at the point and 2 inches long at the inside of the wrist. Metacarpal app. 4 inches across at the knuckle plate. [inv. num. A-46]

German Gorget

German Gorget circa 1550

Formed of 3 plates front and back with additional plates covering the points of the shoulders. Main front plate with central crease. Main rear plate formed to the shape of the neck and shoulders. Neck tof two lames front and back. Upper plates with srong inward-turned roped rolls. Neck lames creased at the center front following the crease in the main plate. Neck lames attached by 3 leathers front and back, each secured by 2 rivets in each plate. Upper plate secured by an integral hinge at the left and a pin at the right. Main plates secured by a pin at the left and a pin engaging in a keyhole slot at the right. Attached shoulder protection of two plates each. One a small articulating plate, the other shaped to cover the point of the shoulder. Edge rolled and roped. Secured with sliding rivets at the back and leathers at the center and front edge. The leather on the right can be detached from the main plate to allow the gorget to be opened. Two hinged mounts for the suspension of the pauldrons, each carrying a vertical pin with a spring-loaded catch. One associated. Older leathers. A pair of holes at the base of the center of the rear main plate. Top of neck slightly out of round. App 6 1/2 inches across on the inside (app. 1/4"" longer front to back than side to side). The main plates are 10 1/4 inches wide at the front, 11 1/2 inches wide at the join between the front and back plates and 13 1/4 inches wide at the back. [inv. num. A-25]

Italian Gorget

Italian Gorget circa 1580

Gorget of two main plates with single neck-lames at the front and rear. The outer edges of the main plates are bordered by a half roll and recessed border, the laf roll roped. The neck edge of the main plates with matching roped half-rolls. The neck plates with roped full rolls. The neck plates are secured by an internal hinge at the left and a pin in the rear plate engaging a hole in the front plate on the right. The main plates are secured by a turning hook on the right which engages in a keyhole slot. Very similar to that on Corselet II.47 in the Royal Armouries (illustrated on plate LIX in European Armour in the Tower of London). [inv. num. A-114c]

Gorget

Gorget circa 1515-1520

Italian. "Alla Tedesca". Formed of 2 large main plates, one front and back. Neck formed of 3 lames front and back the uppermost with large, heavily roped roll. The other 2 with closely-set flutes. Main plates with embossed ridge at the outer edge, recessed border, closely set flutes, a wide area with engraved decoration and a narrow embossed, roped ridge at the neck. Front and back secured by integral hinge on the left and pin on the right. Small patches. Leathers replaced. Previously sold at Sotheby"s New York European Works of Art, Arms and Armour, Tapestries and Furniture June 1, 1991 Lot 480. Arms A-128 part of the same lot. [inv. num. A-127]

Cheek plates

Cheek plates circa 1580-1600

2 parts of a cheek plate - probably from a cabasset, possibly from a morion. These plates were originally of high quality. The rolled and roped border on the edges of the plates are tall, squared, and even. The roping is deep and crisp. The roll on the bottom plate is terminated cleanly with a step to allow the upper plate to overlap it. The bottom edge of the upper plate is cusped and beveled. [inv. num. A-39]

Weapons

Dagger

Dagger circa 1400

Dagger. Typically Swiss. Good, solid excavated item. Handle missing. Includes typical hilt of curved forms. Double edged flattened diamond blade with distal taper. Handle was most likely wood and secured by the surviving pins in the butt plate.

Measurements: overall length 12.625 in. (32 cm), blade length 8.187 in. (20.8 cm), blade width at the hilt 1.146 in. (2.9 cm), blade thickness at the hilt .226 in. (.57 cm), grip length 3.375 in. (8.57 cm), weight 3.8 oz (107.72 g). [inv. num. W-17]

Mace

Mace 16th century

Entirely of steel, the head of six shaped flanges each extending to a reinforced point, button finial, tapering tubular haft pierced for a thong and cut with spiral lines at the grip, and rounded pommel with button terminal (heavily rust patinated overall) 62 cm. [inv. num. W-25]