Allen Antiques

These are the elements of Armour in the collection
Gauntlets

Gauntlets late 15th cent.

Gauntlets. Nicely formed "gothic" gauntlets typical of the late 15th century. Fluted, engraved and pierced overall. Formed of a large metacarpal plate joined to a wrist lame by another, smaller lame. The cuff is also attached to the wrist lame. These plates are attached with sliding rivets allowing the wrist to flex in all directions. The knuckle plate is formed into a blunt point over each knuckle. The fingers are covered by 4 articulated plates fluted over each of the fingers. These gauntlets have been cleaned and re-assembled, but they are basically a complete pair of gauntlets. The thumbs have been restored and the left cuff is associated. Thickness varies .020-.033 in. Generally thinner in the cuff and back of hand.

Side plate from a German cuisse

Side plate from a German cuisse circa 1470-90

This plate provided additional protection for the side of the leg. 12" tall. Holes for attachment of hinges and other plates. Point at the top over the hole used to attach the upper plates. Beveled top edge.

.038 - .060" thick. Generally thicker toward the top. Mostly .040-.050". Part of the rear edge is cracked. It shows no sign of deformation, it seems to have fractured cleanly. This suggests that the plate was formed from steel and hardened.

Outer vambrace plate

Outer vambrace plate circa 1480-1500

From a late 15th century German "splint" vambrace. Surface covered with diagonal flutes. 2 horzontal flutes paralleling the wrist. Simple outward fold at the wrist. Inside includes a separate strip running vertically that forms a slot for the hand protection. This is very atypical - these were often attached by placing a slot in the main plate. The vambrace covers the outer third of the arm.

8 1/2 in. long at the outside and 5 3/4 in. long at the inside. It is 6 in. wide at the top and tapers (very slightly) to 5 3/4 in. at the wrist. Normally a vambrace tapers more than this, but splints which include hand protection that slides inside the vambrace need to be much more tubular.

Thickness .028" - .048", mostly .030 - .035.

Pauldron

Pauldron circa 1480-1500

Main plate from a pauldron. One piece with radiating flutes in the back, parallel horizontal flutes at the top and vertical flutes in the front. Together with a modern copy made as a mate. This was in the Granscay collection, the well made mate was likely made by the armourers at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The original has significant modern patches riveted inside.

German Gauntlet (part)

German Gauntlet (part) circa 1490-1500

Finger, knuckle and 1 1/2 metacarpal plates of a german gothic mitten gauntlet. The finger lames are fluted so simulate fingers, the knuckle plate with rounded and creased knuckles. The first metacarpal plate is fluted with v-shaped puckers to accomadate the flutes in the knuckle and finger lames. There is half of the hinge used to attach the thumb plate, and half of the second metacarpal plate remaining. Each of the articulations is formed with sliding rivets. 2 rivets have been lost, the parts held together by bolts. Formerly in the collection of Leonard Heinrich - armourer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

Brigandine plates

Brigandine plates 15th-16th c

From the Thames at the Queensbury Dock, near Southwark bridge. Composed of 4 different plates, varying in size. One with star-decorated rivets. Two with capped rivets. One larger with many rivets.

Brigandine plates

Brigandine plates 15th-16th century

Brigandine plates. 14 small and 2 larger plates from a brigandine. The two large plates are 6 1/4 and 6 1/2 inches long, and just over 3/4 inches wide. They have a row of closely-spaced rivets at the upper edge. The rivets are app. 3/8 inch on center. The smaller plates are also slightly over 3/4 inches tall. Most are app. 1 1/2 inches long. The smaller plates fall into 2 types. 13 are rectangular/trapezoidal with (generally) 2 rivets at the upper edge. The last plate is oval and has 3 rivets which are of a different form - larger, flatter heads. The plates vary signifcantly in curvature. Many seem to have been flattened or bent after their working life.

European Shirt of mail

European Shirt of mail 15th century

Most of a shirt of mail. One sleeve missing. It may have been cut away to form a gusset. The remains of the shirt have very nice details. The shirt includes a standing collar formed of heavier rings. The wire from which these rings were formed is thicker than the main body rings and the overlap for the rivet is even larger. This makes it stiff enough to stand up and protect the neck. The remaining sleeve is short. It does not seem to be due to loss. There are a few brass rings at the lower edge showing that the original form remains. The bottom edge is asymetric. The back is shorter than the front. There is a central slit in the front. Rings with noticable swelling at the rivet. The rings are vaguely triangular in section. The inside is flat, the front is beveled slightly throughout the ring, more aggresively at the rivet overlap. Some rings obviously attached with wedge rivets, others not as clear. The inside of the rivet is flush with the body of the ring, the outside forms a nice head. Brass rings at the bottom edge have iron rivets.

Italian or Flemish Breastplate

Italian or Flemish Breastplate circa 1500

Formed of a single piece with a medial crease, flared bottom edge and large triangular rolls at the arms and neck. The roll at the arm with engraved/filed decoration in the form of lines. There are a set of holes on the right side for the attachment of the pins for a lance rest. This is a fine example of a rare type of breastplate made at the turn of the 16th century. Examples like it may be found in the Waffensammlung Vienna, Metropolitan Museum NY, etc. For a very similar example see Kienbusch Collection in the Philadelphia Museum of Art #1977-167-132 formerly in the Dean collection.

Size measurements: Width of neck hole - 8 1/2 in. Height of arm hole - 9 in. Arm hole to waist- 4 1/2 in. Center from top of roll to waist - 12 3/4 in. Waist flare - 3/4 in.

The metal varies in thickness. Within an inch it can vary about .01 inch. All measurements in inches. Thickness measurements:Sides - .028-.052 - mostly in the .030-.040 range. Upper area between arm and neck (right side) - .035-.050.Mostly around .040. Same thing (left side) - .059 - .075 (thicker than the other side). At the lance rest holes - .040 - .052. At the top crease area - .070 - .080 (mostly .080). At the center near crease - .080 - .11. Center near the waist - mostly .040 - .050. Height of upper roll at the center - .66. Max height of right arm roll - .84. Max height of left arm roll - .71.

Skull cap

Skull cap circa 1500

One piece bowl cut out over the ears. Pierced with 2 small holes above each ear and one at the front and back. Painted with 57 inside. Brass tag stamped 650 attached to one side. From the George F. Harding Collection, previously ex collection Archduke Eugen - Fortress Hohenwerfeni.

8 1/4in. long, 7in. wide, 4in. deep.

Thickness varies. Generally the thickest area is around the edge where there are some spots which reach .11in, on average closer to .095in. One inch in from the edge is is app. .090in (varying between .085 and .1). Two inches in it is app. .075 in, varying up to .085. Three inches in the thickness is generally .060-065in. Assuming the progression of thickness is indicative of the manufacture, it seems that the arches over the ears were likely cut from the completed form since thethickness is consistent with simlar distances from the main edge, not from the edge of the arch.

Elbow (couter)

Elbow (couter) circa 1500

Floating form designed for use with a central peg securing it to a strap connecting the upper and lower vambrace. Clam shell form with one flute above and below the center and raised border over most of the outer edge. Ex. col. Dr. John Waldman.

Breastplate

Breastplate circa 1500?

Breastplate. Very heavy construction. Rounded form. Flair at the waist. Squared tapered outward rolls at the neck and arms. Holes for shoulder straps and turning hooks for use with plate covered shoulder straps like a trooper"s breast in the 17th. century. 2 dents from bullet shots in the center left of the breast. The form and rolls are what you would expect of a breastplate of c. 1500. Weighs app 18 pounds.

Tasset terminal plate

Tasset terminal plate circa 1505

German. Rectangular form with widely spaced radiating flutes. Flutes with parallel incised lines on each side except for the outer-most flute which is formed as a step and only has one incised line. Upper edge bevelled, lower edge with recessed border and simple ridge simulating a roll. Holes indicate this plate was originally attached ot the other plates by a sliding rivet at the outer edge and an interior leather at the center and inner edge.

4 1/4in. tall.

Thickness varies between .060in, and .035in. Generally between .050 and .045, thinning toward the bottom and inner end.

Maximilian Breastplate

Maximilian Breastplate circa 1505-15

Of shallow globose form with three sprays of flutes radiating from the waist. There are seven flutes in the center spray and 5 in each of the side sprays. The outermost flute on each of the side sprays is really a step - a single sided flute. Neck with an angular inward turn. Arms with sliding gussets with similar angular inward turns. Wide waist lame. Fauld missing. Flutes accented by parallel engraved lines and semi-circular engraved ends. Waist lame with horizontal engraved lines and shallow engraved lines continuing the flutes from the breastplate and suggesting the flutes on the missing fauld. Waist lame cut out at the sides. Each gusset has a buckle at the top to secure the breastplate to the backplate. One of the buckles is likely original the other appears to be a well matched copy. The surface shows signs of rust, cleaning and delaminations.

Measurements: width at the chest under the arms at the corner of the gussets 13 3/4 in. width at the waist 9 in. (given the cut into the edge of the waist, it is wider than this at the real waist) width at the bottom of the main plate corner to corner 10.4 in. width of the main plate at the top 8.6 in. width at the top including the gussets 9.8 in.

Thickness at the sides .030-.042 with at least one spot on the left side down to .020, top edge app. .050 (varying between .040 and .065, but mostly .050-.055, at the top of the central flute spray .075-.095, the thickest spot in the center generally .090-.120, mostly .095-.10. The thickness is current after some significant loss and cleaning to the outside (some of the engraved lines are nearly erased), it would have been measurably but not significantly thicker.

Spaulder plate

Spaulder plate circa 1510

Main plate from a left spaulder. Nice shape swellng at the top. Central vertical crease. Upper edge with a recessed band as a decorative (and stiffening) border. A single hole for a buckle at the center of the top. 3 holes for attachment of the other plates - one near the back corner for a sliding rivet, the other two at the center and front, placed higher for the attachment of leathers.

4 3/4" tall, 6 1/4" wide at the widest point.

.028-.038" thick. Generally slightly thinner at the middle.

Italian or possibly south german elbows

Italian or possibly south german elbows circa 1510

With associated arm pieces. Both for the left arm. Each with gutter shaped upper cannon (one restored), boldly formed couter with flanged upper and lower edges. One incised with a line. Tapering lower cannon cut with a long slot to accomadate the hand defences. Italian, or possibly south German. From the collections of the Counts Schenk von Stauffenberg. Similar ones are preserved in Madonna Delle Grazie - Mantova, and the Tower (from Rhodes)

Maximum width of the wing 8 in. 5 5/8 in. at the back edge. From center of elbow crease to point of cop 7 1/4 in.

Measurements of the slightly larger copy with beveled edge - thickness of the wing area .022-.030 in. back of the cop mostly .030, some areas down to .025, others up to .052 in. front of cop mostly .040-.050 in.

German Gauntlets

German Gauntlets circa 1510

Gauntlets of steel. Very early "Maximilian" form. Narrow cuff of close-fitting form. Inner plate opens on a hinge and spring-pin. Recessed border and simple spray of flutes. Metacarpal of 3 narrow lames and one larger lame near the knuckles. Knuckle plate formed with a rounded ridge over each knuckle. Base of the fingers covered by 2 mitten plates. The large metacarpal and final finger plates are fluted in a "V" to fit to the knuckle plate. The base of the thumb covered by a plate hinged to the main metacarpal plate. Remainder of the thumb covered by a series of overlapping plates rivetted to a leather base. The form of the finger covering is a simple form that would have been used in lower quality or infantry armours. The main form of the gauntlets is similar to the pair of gauntlets on a harness in the Waffensammlung of the Kunsthistorisches museum in Vienna - illustrated on plate 104 (harness described on page 228-9). Cleaned. Small thumb plates, rivets and most leathers restored.

Burgonet

Burgonet circa 1510

Shallow skull with a low roped ridge forming a simple crest. The bowl extends slightly to cover the forhead and farther to cover the neck. Deep fall with wide rounded brim. The outer edge of the brim with a shallow inward turn. The helmet only really covers the head because the fall extends 1 1/2 in below the front edge of the bowl. This allows a shallow bowl to cover the head reasonably. The neck is covered by a single rounded tail lame with a simple raised border on the outside edge. One hinge for the lost cheek pieces remains. Painted overall with a black finish over what appears to be a smooth surface. There is a hole in the top of the skull at the back of the crest the back of crest and the skull around it have been flattened. In its orignal form the top would have been rounded like the front. The brim of the fall is bent at the center. There is also what appears to be a mark in the center of the brim. This appears to be a D on its back. This has been found on pieces made in Nuremberg for Vienna like no. 256 from Das Wiener Burgerliche Zeughaus - 1977. This is a simple example of a very early 16th century style of burgonet. The hole and lost checkplates are later damage, but the form shows the lack of symmetry that is common to many pieces of armour.

Measurements: fromt to back of the bowl 7 5/8 in., side to side 6 7/8 in. Fall 2 1/4 in. tall (tapering to 2 on the left side) and brim 1 5/8 in overall (tapering to 1 3/8 on the left) tail lame 1 5/8 on the left and 1 3/8 in. on the right where it sits off the skull - the overall length from the skull is 1 5/8 on both sides.

Thickness: brim mostly .042-.048 in. Skull mostly app. 050 in. but there are some spots thinning to .030 and up to .070 in. Tail .058-.062 in.

Composed arm harness

Composed arm harness circa 1510 etc.

Italian floating elbow from 1510. Associated with a later (17th cent.) vambrace, a simple upper vambrace that may form part of the arm with the elbow. The elbow is a simple floating elbow with integral wing. The edges of the wing have a simple rececessed border. The border is app. 1/2" wide and it ends app. 3/4" from the back edge and 1" from the center of the wing. Upper vambrace plate has a central crease and a small half roll at the inside of the elbow. Spaulder plate with a rudimentary central crease and border at the top edge. The front and back of the spaulder cop have been trimmed to adapt it to this arm. The original form was likely very similar to A-56. Together with an associated lame.

Elbow cop - the wing is app 6" tall at the widest spot, tapering to app. 4 1/2" at the back edge. The upper vambrace is app. 7" tall at the back and 5 3/8" tall at the front. It is 6 3/8" wide at the top (measured on the surface). Spaulder cop 5 1/4 in. tall.

The elbow varies from .058 in. to .030 in. Mostly app. .040 in. Upper vambrace thickness varies significantly. It is generally thicker at the front and thinner at the back. It varies from app. .06" down to .03". Spaulder cop - .022 - .045" thick, the thinnest measurements at the center.

Crinet Plates

Crinet Plates circa 1510-20

Likely Italian. 2 lames most likely forming the second and third plates from the top of the crinet (the top plates that are not attached to the chanfron). The edges with half rolls and bordered by a line of lining holes. Decorated with etching. Etching closely resembles that on Mantova B-10 and similar to the etching on the subsidiary plates of Henry VIII "tonlet" armour from 1520

Backplate

Backplate circa 1510-20

German. 5 sprays of flutes, 5 flutes in the center spray, 3 each in the other sprays. Flutes radiate from the bottom. Arm holes bordered with a simple raised ridge. 2 holes at the center top. Likely trimmed slightly at the top. Heavily worn, much of the engraved lines on each flute worn away. Formed of a main plate with 2 small extension plates. Waist lame with 3 dependent culet lames. Culet with 3 sprays of flutes. Internal riveted patches in culet lames.

Height - main plate 12 3/4 in. tall. 14 3/4 in. wide under the arms, 10 1/2 in. wide at the waist (center of the waist lame).

Thickness .030 in. to .064 in. On average around .050. There are no signs of intentionally thin or thick areas.

Elbow cop

Elbow cop circa 1510-30

Decorated with flutes and recessed bands. A "floating" cop used with separate upper and lower cannons of the vambrace. The mate is a very well made modern copy (to form a pair). The mate was made in the armouries of the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Gorget

Gorget circa 1515-1520

Italian. "Alla Tedesca". Formed of 2 large main plates, one front and back. Neck formed of 3 lames front and back the uppermost with large, heavily roped roll. The other 2 with closely-set flutes. Main plates with embossed ridge at the outer edge, recessed border, closely set flutes, a wide area with engraved decoration and a narrow embossed, roped ridge at the neck. Front and back secured by integral hinge on the left and pin on the right. Small patches. Leathers replaced. Previously sold at Sotheby"s New York European Works of Art, Arms and Armour, Tapestries and Furniture June 1, 1991 Lot 480. Arms A-128 part of the same lot.

German child

German child"s backplate circa 1520

Made for a child"s armour. Remains of Nuremburg guild mark on the right shoulder. It has been heavily patched with well executed riveted patches.

German floating Elbow

German floating Elbow circa 1520

Simple "Maximilian" form. Rounded flutes accented by engraved lines. 2 nearly identical elbows are in the Fitzwilliam collection (no.s HEN.M.135A-1933 and HEN.M.135B-1933). From the R.T. Gwynn collection.

Arms

Arms circa 1520

German. Spaulders of 5 plates, main plate overlapping one upper and 3 lower plates. Arms with an open upper and closed lower vambraces with couter articulated by one lame above and below. Couters with large wings with rolled and roped borders, recessed band and central spray of closely-set flutes. Center of cop embossed with a flower.

Bottom plates from a pair of German Tassets

Bottom plates from a pair of German Tassets circa 1520-30

of bright steel embossed and engraved in imitation of the slashed civilian clothing of the period. Each curved to the shape of the thigh, the lower edge (cracked) boldy roped and bordered by a recessed border defined by 2 ridges. The upper edge cusped in the center. Domed brass rivets replaced. Height 5 inches (12.8 cm). Provenance F.H. Cripps-Day. Exhibited Wilmer House Museum, Farnham, 3-29 April 1962, No. 8.

Spaulder

Spaulder circa 1530

Possibly Landshut. Formed of 6 plates, the 2nd overlapping the first and the lower plates. Fluted overall in 4 sets of 3 flutes each. Bands separated by flat areas etched with running foliage and a bird a female figure. The top plate with a plain turn and recessed border which continue onto the to of the second plate. The next 3 plates with plain ends. The final plate with a heavily roped inward-turned roll on the bottom edge and a pair of horizontal flutes. All flutes accented with parallel engraved lines, one on each side of the flute. Retaining its orginal buckle at the bottom front corner of nice form. Ex. Coll. Dr. John Waldman.

2 Gauntlets

2 Gauntlets circa 1530-40

2 Gauntlets. Almost forming a pair. Both mid 16th century mitten gauntlets with 2 piece cuffs opening on a hinge and secured by a pin. The metacarpals formed of several small plates and one larger plate. The knuckle bows formed with a raised, roped ridge. Fingers covered by articulated plates, the terminal plates with roped and recessed borders. Thumbs protected by a large plate covering the base of the thumb secured to metacarpal by a hinge, with smaller plates secured to leather covering the remainder of the thumbs. Both terminal thumb plates with simulated finger nails. The Fitzwilliam collection in Cambridge contains a very similar pair of gauntlets (no. HEN.M.141-1933.

German black and white mitten gauntlets

German black and white mitten gauntlets circa 1530-50

Short, almost straight cuffs formed of 2 plates rivited together. Cuff with rolled, roped and recessed border. Black surface rough from the hammer. White areas raised and ground smooth. Back of the hand formed of 5 plates. Knuckle plate fromed with a raised and roped ridge. Fingers covered by 5 articulated plates.

Tasset plates

Tasset plates circa 1530?

German. 1 large terminal plate and 2 small plates. Closely set flutes. One lame detatched.

Bottom plate 3 1/4 in. tall. Other plates 1 1/2 in. tall, broadening to 1 5/8 or 1 3/4 in. at the rivet locations.

Thickness varies .060-.020 in., generally .045-.040 in.

South German  Burgonet

South German Burgonet circa 1540

One piece skull formed with four triangular panels rising to a near pyramidal point, fitted with fixed peak and neck guard each with recessed border and finely roped edge. With a pair of simple cheek plates. A burgonet of similar form and struck with the mark of the Vienna City arsenal is preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum Campridge (inv. number HEN.M.80-1933).

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1540-60

Formed of an upper and lower vambrace articulated by means of one lame below and one lame above to the bracelet cop. The upper vambrace includes a turning collar which was originally directly attached by a sliding rivet at the back and two leathers to the pauldron. Rolled and roped borders at the wrist and on the edge of the wing. Simple outward rolls at the inner edge of the upper and lower vambraces (at the elbow). Elbow of very pointed form with full bracelet wing. Horizontal raised and roped ridge on the outside from the point of the elbow to the center of the wing. Iron rivets with brass caps articulating the plates and attaching the hinge for the lower vambrace.

Turning collar 4 3/4" in diameter. Lower vambrace 9 3/8" long at the longest point.

Upper cannon .030-.050" thick, lower cannon more even .030-.040" thick.

German fingered Gauntlet (possibly Brunswick)

German fingered Gauntlet (possibly Brunswick) circa 1540-60

Long, pointed cuff formed with a gentle even flare over the entire length of the cuff. Central point. Border rolled and roped with an additional double row of raised decoration. Lining rivets around the edge of the cuff. Back of the hand covered by 5 articulated plates, the final plate larger than the rest. Knuckle plate decorated with a roped ridge with additional decorative grooves at the end and center. Thumb plate attached by a hinge. Fluted plate joining the knuckle plate to the fingers. One finger remaining. A gauntlet of similar form with similar edge decoration is in the Keinbusch collection in Philadelphia.

German Gorget

German Gorget circa 1550

Formed of 3 plates front and back with additional plates covering the points of the shoulders. Main front plate with central crease. Main rear plate formed to the shape of the neck and shoulders. Neck tof two lames front and back. Upper plates with srong inward-turned roped rolls. Neck lames creased at the center front following the crease in the main plate. Neck lames attached by 3 leathers front and back, each secured by 2 rivets in each plate. Upper plate secured by an integral hinge at the left and a pin at the right. Main plates secured by a pin at the left and a pin engaging in a keyhole slot at the right. Attached shoulder protection of two plates each. One a small articulating plate, the other shaped to cover the point of the shoulder. Edge rolled and roped. Secured with sliding rivets at the back and leathers at the center and front edge. The leather on the right can be detached from the main plate to allow the gorget to be opened. Two hinged mounts for the suspension of the pauldrons, each carrying a vertical pin with a spring-loaded catch. One associated. Older leathers. A pair of holes at the base of the center of the rear main plate. Top of neck slightly out of round. App 6 1/2 inches across on the inside (app. 1/4"" longer front to back than side to side). The main plates are 10 1/4 inches wide at the front, 11 1/2 inches wide at the join between the front and back plates and 13 1/4 inches wide at the back.

South-German Tassets

South-German Tassets mid 16th century

For a half armour. Seven lames, the upper four detachable. Creased center line. Hammered floral decor, turned and roped edges, lateral double decorative lines. Decorative file work at the centers of the tops of the lames. Very nice, full form. Old leathers (one detatched from one plate). Old rivets and matching buckles (some tongues defective).

Breast and back plates

Breast and back plates circa 1550

Breast and Back. Set up for infantry use. Decorated with pairs of incised lines (at the top border, tripples). Backplate with simple rolls at the arms, neck and base of the waist lame. Waist formed of a large waist lame. Additional lame at the top. Each plate attached by 3 sliding rivets. Breast with a central ridge of globose form. Neck and arms with outward triangular rolls. Arm holes with fixed gussets. Fauld of 3 lames decorated en suite with the breast and back.

Details

German Black and White Elbow

German Black and White Elbow mid 16th cent.

Elbow cop. Floating (originally held to the arm with a strap and buckle around the elbow and a pin suspending if from the upper arm). Decorated with raised foliage against a rough background (likely originally blackened). Raised areas with simple etched decoration. Recessed border with high quality etched decoration of foliage with "dot" background. This elbow was claimed to have been formerly in the collection of Stephen Granscay.

Tournament Visor

Tournament Visor circa 1550

Tournament visor formed of dished sheet pierced crudely with square and triangular holes. Signs of chisel over-strikes at the corners of holes. Ex. royal house of Hanover.

Burgonet

Burgonet mid 16th century

One piece skull with four creases rising to a tall point at the center. Bluntly pointed peak formed as part of the bowl. The skull retains its original blackened finish and padded lining. Originally formed with white bands at the creases and on the brim, later (during its working life) to overall rough from the hammer and blackened. Likely at this same time the tail lame was replaced by the current tail. Cheek plates modern replacements. Lining attached to leather strips secured by a line of rivets above the brim and tail. Quilted lining of 2 layers stuffed with fibre. Each layer formed in 2 halves with a central seam front to back.

Pair of Cuisses

Pair of Cuisses circa 1550

A pair. Consisting of a one piece cuisse shaped to the thigh with central crease and bold inward turned roped roll at the top. Poleyn of 4 plates, the cop deeply dished with a large wing on the outside, wing with inward turned roped rolled edge. One small articulating lame above and below the cop and a terminal plate with an inward turned roped roll on the bottom edge. Some old repairs - one cop has a patched hole and one has the wing re-attached. A nice example of a plain armour of the mid 16th century. In uncleaned condition from an English household.

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of a large plate above and 4 small plates below the main plate. The top plate articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. The upper, front and back edges of the large pauldron plates with inward turned roped rolls and a recessed border. The inner half of the lowest plate with an inward turned and roped roll. The cop open at the back (not a full bracelet) with inward turned, roped turns at the edges. The turns are accompanied by a recessed border on the wing. The center of the cop with a raised roped ridge. The vambrace of two pieces secured by two leather strips at the back and a pin at the front. Inward turned roped rolls at the wrist and the inside of the upper edge at the elbow. Decorative rosettes on the pauldron and elbow. In uncleaned condition from an English household.

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of 2 large plates above and 4 small plates below the large central plate. The top, front and back edge of the upper plates and the bottom edge of the lowest plate with roped inward turned roll and a parallel recessed border. The to plates articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. The elbow of bracelet form with inward turns along the edge. Cop of rounded form with a raised central ridge. This cop is formed of 2 pieces. The rounded cop and front wing and a smaller secondary plate forming the inner wing. The vambrace is formed of 2 plates hinged by 2 internal leathers at the front and a pin on the inner plate engaging a hole in the outer plate at the back. The cop and pauldron with rivets with brass rosette washers. The pauldron, cop and vambrace are secured by 2 vertical leather strips riveted to the cop and slotted onto rivets in the pauldron and vambrace. In uncleaned condition from an English household.

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of two large plates above and 4 small plates below the large main plate. The top plates articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. The edges of the upper plates with inward turned roped rolls and a recessed border which forms a gentle curve, instead of being parallel to the edge. Cop of rounded form with a raised central ridge. This cop is formed of 2 pieces. The rounded cop and front wing and a smaller secondary plate forming the inner wing. The vambrace is formed of 2 plates hinged by 2 internal leathers at the front and a pin on the inner plate engaging a hole in the outer plate at the back. The cop and pauldron with rivets with brass rosette washers. The pauldron, cop and vambrace are secured by 2 vertical leather strips riveted to the cop and slotted onto rivets in the pauldron and vambrace. In uncleaned condition from an English household.

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of two large plates above and four small plates below the large main plate. The top plates articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. The upper, front and back edges have an inward turned roped roll with a parallel recessed border. The cop of shallow form with a raised, roped central ridge and inward turned rolled and roped edges. The cop wraps app. three quarters of the way around the arm. The vambrace formed of 2 plates secured by two leather strips at the back and a pin at the front. Rolled at the wrist and the inside of the elbow. The cop and pauldron with rivets with brass rosette washers. The pauldron, cop and vambrace are secured by 2 vertical leather strips riveted to the cop and slotted onto rivets in the pauldron and vambrace. In uncleaned condition from an English household.

Arm Harness with Pauldron

Arm Harness with Pauldron circa 1550

Composed of a pauldron extending to the elbow, a floating cop and a closed vambrace. The pauldron formed of 2 large plates above and 4 small plates below the large central plate. The edge of the upper plates and the bottom edge of the lowest plate with roped inward turned roll and a parallel recessed border. The top plates articulated on rivets, the bottom ones secured by sliding rivets at the back and leathers in the center and front. Cop of angular form. The vambrace is formed of 2 plates hinged by 2 internal leathers at the front and a pin on the inner plate engaging a hole in the outer plate at the back. The cop and pauldron with rivets with brass rosette washers. The vambrace plates secured by two leather strips at the front and a strap and buckle at the back. The pauldron, cop and vambrace are secured by 2 vertical leather strips riveted to the cop and slotted onto rivets in the pauldron and vambrace. In uncleaned condition from an English household.

Lower-German Breastplate

Lower-German Breastplate circa 1550-1560

Heavy hammered polished iron breast plate with strong projection in the medial ridge and triple extruded curved V-lines under a centrally subdivided roped flange. The left side etched (faded) with a crucifix and kneeling knight. Inset gussets with high roped turnovers. Riveted waist lame. The arm holes are bordered by a narrow recessed band. The bottom edge heavily beveled with a decorative notch at the center. The inside with distinct tool marks, the iron slightly raised in places, the double holes for the lance rest filled in the distant past. Rivets replaced.

Height 12 1/2 in. (32 cm). 11 1/2 in. wide at the waist, 15 1/2 in. wide under the arm holes. 11 1/2 in. wide at the top with the gussets fully extended.

Thickness on a line from the center point to the central point of the left arm roll .156 in. up to .210 app. 1 1/2 in. from the center to .170 at the corner. Along a line 1 in. up from the bottom edge from the center to the outside .160 in. at the center thinning down to .10 at the rivet securing the waist lame down to .075 near the edge. Upper half more consistent ranging somewhat randomly between .170 to .210 with a few spots reaching .230. Up at the top corner of the arm hole thining down to .120 in. Waist lame in the upper facet .132 in. near the center tapering to .055 in. at the edge "Flair" less even and generally thinner varying between .110 in.to .045, mostly between .070 and .090 in. Overall pattern .20 thick near the center, tapering to .070 at the sides and .150 at the top.

Italian Gauntlets

Italian Gauntlets circa 1550-1580

A pair of fingered gauntlets. Pointed cuffs of one piece with a central crease and joined at the inside of the wrist by 2 flush rivets. The seam stepped so that the outside is flush. The cuff is flared evenly thoughout its length. The outer edge of the cuff is bordered by a roped inward roll and a recessed border. The border includes a raised central ridge. The roll, central ridge and recessed border with single engraved lines. The back of hand is formed of 4 narrow plates toward the wrist and one wider plate at the knuckle. Each of the plates has a central crease with a notch in the edge aligned with the crease and a pair of incised lines parallel to the visible edge. The ends of the metacarpal plates have a shallow semi-circular extension with a small notch cut at the end of the extension. The extension allows the rivets to be mostly aligned with the edge of the plates. The knuckles are covered by a single plate with a central raised and roped ridge and the outer edge is shaped to the fingers. Thumbs of one large plate with a raised central tear-drop and scales covering the thumb. The main thumb plate is attached to the larger metacarpal plate by a hinge with one rivet on each end. The metacarpal plates are slightly boxed. Small finger and thumb plates replaced. Fingers re-leathered. Rivets replaced. Cleaned over-all. Cuff at the wrist roughly three and one half inches in diameter. Outer edge of the cuff tear-drop shaped 6 inches by 5 one half inches. Cuff 5 inches long at the point and 2 inches long at the inside of the wrist. Metacarpal app. 4 inches across at the knuckle plate.

German pair of black and white elbow gauntlets

German pair of black and white elbow gauntlets circa 1550-1590

Good quality black and white gauntlets with raised bands and recessed ground. Bands polished. 2 marks on each gauntlet. On one, a recognizable part of the Nurenberg guild mark. Remaining marks unclear. Cuffs of 2 plates attached by rivets. Metacarpal of four narrow and one wider plate. Knuckle plate with raised, roped ridge. Additional plate formed to the fingers between the knuckle plate and finger plates. Large thumb plate attached to the large metacarpal plate with leather. Re-leathered fingers.

Black and white half suit

Black and white half suit circa 1550-1600

composed of a morion formed from 2 pieces, breast with prominent central point, sliding gussets and fauld of 2 lames, munions formed of one large plate front and back with integral shoulders and elbow gauntlets. Breast, main gorget plates, terminal shoulder plates and gauntlet cuffs decorated with arched raised "white" bands instead of the more usual bands parallel to the edge. Gorget neck lames lacking.

German Breastplate

German Breastplate circa 1550-60

Aggresive central crease rising to a rounded point. Sliding gussets at the arms with large inward turned, roped rolls. Large inward turned rolled roped edge at the neck, with a recessed border curving down to a central point. 2 marks near the neck. Nuremberg Guild mark and Vienna arsenal mark. Integral flare at the base for attachment of the fauld (instead of a separate waist lame). Holes in the flare for articulation toward the outer end and pairs of holes for leathers in app. the middle of each side. These would be used to secure 2 interior leathers which would terminate at the center of the tassets.

Height 14 in. (50 mm), 12 in. wide at the waist, 14 1/2 wide under the arms and 11 1/2 in. wide at the top with the gussets fully extended. Neck roll 1/2 in. wide and 3/4 in tall at the center tapering to 1/4 in. wide and almost flat at the ends.

Thickness. Max. .187 in (app. 1/2 way between the point and the center of the arm hole). Highly variable thickness in the middle, generally between .130 and .160 in the central 1/3 of the breast. .047-.055 at the right edge. .068-.092 in. 2 /12 inches in from the right edge (the line under the lower rivet securing the gusset). .108-.122 in. near the center below the "point".

German  Breastplate

German Breastplate circa 1550-60

Breastplate. Black and white. Sliding gussets at the arm holes and 2 fauld lames. Drawn out to a blunted point somewhat below center. Rolls at the neck and arm holes tapering from the center and roped. Background rough from the hammer and painted black. Bands raised and polished. Central band tapering toward the waist on both the breast and fauld lames. One raised band on each side. Top of breastplate with wide scalloped raised area. Lower fauld lame with central arch cut out and rolled and roped edge. All parts originally part of the same piece. Buckles at the shoulder end of the arm gussets. Painted number 3946 in large numbers on the inside of the breast. A nice, basic, munition black and white breastplate from the mid 16th century.

South German Armour Parts

South German Armour Parts circa 1550-60

Pauldrons, fauld and tassets. All matching. Rolled and roped borders with parallel pairs of raised lines as border. Pauldrons of 6 upward-lapping lames in a particularly German fashion normally associated with Augsburg. Pauldron plates attached by leathers at most points. Sliding rivets at the back of the lower 5 plates. Fauld of 3 lames with sliding rivets and internal leathers including an edge leather for lining. Fauld with central crease and parallel lines at the ends of the plates. Center of bottom plate arched slightly with rolled and roped border. Matching tassets of 5 lames connected by sliding rivets at the outer edge and internal leathers at the center and inside. Tassets suspended from the fauld by 3 buckles each. Buckles with filed decoration. Rolled edges on the inside and bottom of the tasset plates. The pauldrons and tassets retain leather strips riveted inside the outer edge for securing the linings.

Breastplate

Breastplate circa 1550-60

With a central crease drawn out to a rounded central point. There is a small rectangular hole near the center of the neck. This appears to be for securing the peg that would be used to secure the buff. The edges of the breastplate at the arm holes and sides are heavily beveled. Tapering inward-turned rolls at the neck and arms. Arms with sliding gussets. Gussets and upper roll with fine roping. Waist with a single lame fauld with turning pins at the sides for securing a removeable fauld. The single fauld lame has a roped roll a the bottom edge. The central hole at the neck and decorative style indicate that this is likely of Brunswick origin.

Height 13 3/4 inches from the center of the waist to the center of the top roll. Width 14 inches under the arms and 12 3/4 at the waist. 10 3/4 inches wide at the top with the gussets out, 10 1/8 inches when they are pushed in fully.

Thickness varies significantly, but there doesn"t seem to be an intentional pattern to the thickness changes. Generally around .180-.190 in (4.57 mm - 4.83 mm). Some thick areas .220 inch, thin areas .150 inch. Gusset ranges from .055-.075 inch. Fauld lame .030-.040 inch. .

Italian floating elbow

Italian floating elbow circa 1560

Of nearly bracelet form. There is a narrow gap of app 1/2 inch between the rear edge of the cop and the wing. The cop cop is asymetric, being flatter at the back and rising to a peak at the center from slightly behind the point of the elbow through the wing. The wing is slightly larger on one side than the other indicating that this is a right elbow. The outer edges are rolled and roped for their entire length. The roll is bordered by a recessed border on the front portion of the wing. There is a central raised roped band running along most of the raised portion of the cop. There are 2 holes on the front and one at the back for attachment of the cop to the vambrace plates. The cop is app. 3 1/2 inches tall and app. 7 1/2 inches from the point of the elbow to the opposite edge of the wing. The wing is 5 inches high. There is an old collection number in white paint ("178") on the back of the wing. Some delaminations on the inside.

Italian Arm harness

Italian Arm harness circa 1560

Originally designed as a floating arm defense of a rerebrace, couter and vambrace. It has been crudely joined by copper rivets. Couter of bracelet form. The rear edge of the cop overlaps the end of hte wing by app. 1/2 inch they are secured by 2 rivets. The end of the wing is recessed so that the outside of the wing and cop are flush. The cop cop is asymetric, being flatter at he back and rising to a peak at the center from slightly behind the point of the elbow through the wing. The wing is symetric. The outer edges are rolled and roped for their entire length (one small portion missing near the center of fhe back). The roll is bordered by a recessed border on the front portion of the wing. There is a central raised roped band running along most of the raised portion of the cop. There are 2 holes on the front and one at the back for attachment of the cop to the vambrace plates. The cop is app. 3 1/2 inches tall and app. 7 inches from the point of the elbow to the opposite edge of the wing. The wing is 5 1/4 inches high. Rerebrace of simple tubular form with rotating collar remaining. Rolled and roped borders at the inside of the elbow and the inside of the edge of the turning collar. The turning collar has one hole in front, a pair of holes at the outside and a slot at the back for the attachment of the pauldron. The vambrace of 2 plates joined by 2 hinges on the outside. The outer plate dished to conform to the forarm. The upper edge of the inner plate with a rolled and roped border. The wrist edge of both plates with rolled and roped border and recessed band. All borders formed with inward turns. Older patchs to the top of the inner vambrace plate (front corner and middle). Vambrace with holes for a strap and buckle to close the vambrace.Vambrace 8 3/4 inches long at the outside and 5 inches long on the inside. Inner vambrace plate somewhat deformed and with 2 short cracks. Originally from HM Stores (possibly Tower or Woolich Rotunda). Complete with bill of sale from 1926.

Vambrace

Vambrace circa 1560

Vambrace. Fully enclosed. Formed of an inner and outer plate. Wrist with rolled edge. Additional embossed line parallel to the wrist. Inner plate attached by one inset hinge on one side and a pin engaging a hole in the outer plate on the other side the hinge is fully-wrapped with 2 sections on each side. One lame for articulation of the cop remains. Hinge and lame attached by steel rivets. Two rivets on each side of the hinge. The lame pivoting on the two rivets. Outer vambrace plate and lame with a central crease. Small assembly marks in the form of filed notches, one on the vambrace, one larger and 2 smaller on the lame. Outer plate 7 1/2 inches long at the central crease.

Greaves

Greaves circa 1560

Flemish. Covering the front and outside of the shin and calf. Right from the period, left of somewhat heavier form and likely more recently made to match. From the George F. Harding Collection

Finger plates

Finger plates circa 1560-1620

Three fingers from fingered gauntlets. Formed of overlapping plates (8, 10 and 11 plates respectively). Each of roughly rectangular form with a rounded and beveled front edge. Each attached to base leather with 2 rivets at the rear edge. All curved around the top of the finger. Terminal plate longer, with rounded end, secured by teh third rivet at the tip and with embossed in the form of a finger-nail. Leather shows holes where it was stitched to the lining glove along the edge. 2 of the fingers secured to reinforcing cloth bands to stabilize the leather. Overall the plates taper toward the tip of the finger.

Finger plates

Finger plates circa 1560-1620

Composed finger from fingered gauntlets

Finger plates

Finger plates circa 1560-1620

Separate finger plates from fingered gauntlets

Pair of knee length tassets

Pair of knee length tassets circa 1560-70

Black and white. Formed of eight lames with detachable poleyns of 4 lames. The tassets are divisible between the fourth and fifth lames. The bright band at the center is bordered by narrow recesses, the borders on the side are recessed with a narrow raised edge simulating a roll on the outside and a small roped inward turned roll on the inside. There are white bands down the middle and on each side. There are three buckles on each for suspension from the fauld. The segments are secured by keyhole slots and pins on the outside and pins with hooks on the inside. Decorated with original brass rosette washers and a few replaced pewter rosettes. There are remains of a leather strap at the edge of the outside. This would have been used to limit the motion of the sliding rivets or possibly to secure a lining. The image of the separate pieces of the right tasset with the poleyn from the outside shows the knee at full bend. Both tassets include marks which are likely to identify the matching tassets among others - 7 punched marks on the lowest lame of each section that separates and on the wing of the cop. Ex. Royal house of Hanover.

Italian Three-quarter Suit

Italian Three-quarter Suit circa 1560-80

Composed Armour. Comprising a breastplate, backplate, morion, gorget, 2 arms and 2 knee length tassets. The armour is composed, possibly from items from a single armoury or collection - at a glance they form an armour but on close inspection the arms do not match and the tasssets are not a pair. The armour retains much black paint finish on all parts. The breast, back and arms date from 1560-80. The Morion may be this early, or it may be as late as 1600. The tassets are most likely contemporary with the cuirass. The breast and backplates fit well together and have similar roped edges. Both are rough from the hammer. they appear to have been originally part of the same armour. The Breastplate has heavily roped borders at the neck and arms. the armholes are formed by a pair of sliding gussets. The breast has the 2 mounting holes used for attachment of a lance rest, so it was originally designed for use by heavy cavalry. Breastplate of mild peascod form with a single lame at the waist. Upper portion of the breast decorated with 2 raised volutes. The gorget is of simple 2 piece form with rolled edges at the neck and around the lower border, possibly 17th century. The helmet is a simple one piece morion with high comb and narrow brim. Comb and edge of the brim roped. Backplate of simple form. Roped borders to neck and arms en suite with the breast. Most of one arm rope lacking due to corrosion. The arms are composed of pauldrons of 9 plates each designed for use either without arms, with floating elbow cops (as currently displayed) or with elbow gauntlets. The elbows are "floaters" - not articulated to the vambrace, instead being attached to the arms by means of leather straps. They are of bracelet form with pronounced roped medial ridges. The left has a recessed border on the wing. The vambraces are designed for use with floating elbows and are formed of 2 pieces, attached by 2 hinges and secured closed by means of a pin. The left has a recessed border at the wrist, the right is plain. both have roped borders at the wrist and inside of the elbow. The tassets are formed of 9 (right) and 11 (left) plates. They are similar in design and construction, but obviously not a pair. The are secured to the fauld by 3 buckles (the left retaining all three original buckles, the right having 2 original and one replacement).

Details

Breastplate

Breastplate circa 1560-80

Rolled edges at neck and arms. Full peascod form. Pairs of engraved lines decorating the surface. 1 fauld lame.

Italian Backplate

Italian Backplate circa 1560-80

Good form, designed for use without a fauld. Arm, neck and bottom edges with rolled and slightly roped borders. Arm and neck rolls formed over wire, the roll on the waist flare is smaller in diamer and shows no sign of ever having wire inside. Raised decorative bead running parallel to the arm holes and along the neck (descending at the center of the back). The decorative bead also roped. Engraved line at center - along the backbone. Rusted and cleaned.

Height (inside, neck hole to waist flare) 14 3/8 inches, width under arm holes 14 inches (narrowing to 13 1/4 at the very front edge), width at waist 11 inches, width of neck hole app. 9 1/2 inches, width at top 12 1/8 inches, the waist flare mostly app. 3/4 inch wide, narrowing at the center to 1/2 inch.

Thickness .020 in. to .050 in. Mostly .032 - .040. Thickness varies without any real pattern, possibly generally thinner at the most dished areas.

Elbow cop

Elbow cop circa 1560-90

Of bracelet form with inward turned rolls on the wing, formed of one piece joined at the back. This cop would have been secured to lames and articulated to the vambrace plates. The cop is deep coming to a rounded point. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Elbow cop

Elbow cop circa 1560-90

Of bracelet form with inward turned finely roped rolls along the edges with a parallel recessed border and additional recessed line. Formed of one piece joined at the center of the wing. The cop rises to a blunt crease at the center. This cop would have have been secured to the vambrace by a leather strip secured to the pairs of rivets in the middle of the front and back of the cop. The roping on the edge changes direction at the widest part of the wing at the front and the back. The transistion includes two lines that go straight across the roll. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Maximum width of the wing 7 in. width at the center of the cop 4 3/4 in. inner part of wing to point 6 3/4 in.

Thickness varies significantly - it is thickest at the point where it reaches .070, most of the rest of the area is .040-.060. There are some thin areas which measure .030.

Elbow cop

Elbow cop circa 1560-90

Of bracelet form with narrow inward turned roped rolls along the edges with a parallel recessed line. Formed of one piece joined at the center of the wing. The cop rises to a blunt crease at the center. The cop is of medium size. This cop would have have been secured to the vambrace by a leather strip secured to the rivets in the middle of the front and back of the cop. The roping changes direction at the wide point of the wing, at the front there are 2 perpendicular lines, at the back they just chanage direction - intersecting in a V form. There are assembly/association marks on the wing - 2 punched points on one side and fourteen (in 2 lines of 7) on the other side. The recessed lines end near the center of the wing (where it becomes too narrow for them to be there) and at the back. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Two Elbow cops

Two Elbow cops circa 1560-90

Nearly a pair. Open at the inside with inward turned roped rolls along the edges. The roping changes direction at the wide point of the wing. The cop rises to a blunt crease at the center. There is a line of rivets around the edges of the cops which would have secured a leather strip. There are also rivets in the center of the wing and back edge and a larger central hole. These cops would have have been secured to the vambrace by a leather strip secured to a pin through the hole in the middle of the front of the cop and a strap around the elbow. One of these elbows appears to show signs of the original finish. These pieces were heavily coated in oil and have gone through relatively few owners. There appear to be areas of surface finish which have not been heavily oxidized or recleaned repeatedly. This can be seen on the lower half of the cop. The surface appears to have been polished over signs of grinding. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Upper cannon

Upper cannon circa 1560-90

Upper arm for use with floating elbow. Formed with a turner - the upper segment of one large plate and two small articulating lames on the outside. The upper is secured to the lower by a raised ridge on the upper which engages flair on the lower plate. There is a small hook on the inside to secure the pauldron strap. The upper edge with an inward turned roped roll with two parallel ridges. A narrow outward turn at the inside of the elbow. Rivets on the upper plate would have secured a leather tab used to lace the arm to the clothing. pairs of holes at the bottom would have secured the leather strap for the elbow. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Height of the lower section 5 1/2 in. tapering down to 2 in. at the inside measured from the center of the raised ridge for rotation. Upper 5 in. on the outside and 1 4/3 on the inside. Diameter 5 1/4 - 5 1/2 on the upper and 4 3/4 on the lower.

Thickness of the lower generally .030-.045 with some small portions reaching .050. The main plate of the upper thicker - .050-.060 with some small portions reaching .070. This difference in thickness appears to be intentional. The additional thickness to one section would likely help the rotator resist bending so that it would continue to work under use.

German (possibly Brunswick) Munion shoulder from a pair of munions

German (possibly Brunswick) Munion shoulder from a pair of munions circa 1570

Very full shape, 6 plates, creased center line with filed notch. Bold roped lower border with double incised line decoration. Originally smooth finish, clean light gray patina. Lower buckle for attachment to arm. Original sliding rivets in rear and 2 bands of old leather.

Italian Pauldron

Italian Pauldron late 16th cent

Large main plate overlapping those above and below. 2 plates avove, 4 below. Main edges with inward-truned rolls and recessed borders. For use with a floating elbow or with elbow gauntlets. Brass-capped rivets.

Thickness varies between .022 and .058 in., mostly .035-.040 in. There seems to be very little pattern to the thickness variation. There has certainly been some loss due to oxidation.

German Greave plate (front)

German Greave plate (front) late 16th cent

Originally part of a complete cased greave. Designed to be worn with a full legharness and mail sabatons. Greave has good shape and terminates at the ankle where it has a rolled edge and a series of small holes for the attachment of the mail sabaton. The turning hook used to secure it to the lower plate of the poleyn remains. There is a brass collection tag with the number c. 27, and a paper one with the number c. 57. This was originally a very nice piece - it has a wide etched bands of decoration at the center and narrow bands at each edge. There are remnants of gilt in the etching. This style of greave built for use with a mail sabaton was often used in Italy. The style of etching is associated with Augsburg Germany. The etched decoration is app. 1/2" wide at the sides. The central band tapers from app. 2 1/8" to 1 1/2".

Height 12 in. at the center crease, 4 1/2" wide at the calf, 3" wide at the ankle.

Varies between .018" and .036" thick. It is generally thicker near the ankle and thinner at the calf.

German Arm Harness

German Arm Harness circa 1570

Formed of a closed vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by an inset hinge on the front and a pin on the inner plate that engages a hole in the outer plate at the back. The cop is slightly rounded and secured to the upper and lower cannons by one lame above and below the cop. The upper canon formed of 2 plates with a turning collar formed by a raised ridge on the upper (outer) an a flair on the edge of the lower (inner) plate. The wrist and inner elbow are bordered by rolled and roped borders. The wing on the cop is formed from a separate plate and secured by 2 rivets. The arm includes a tournament reinforce formed to the elbow and secured to the cop by a bolt at the front and a pin at the point of the elbow.

Shoulder plates

Shoulder plates late 16th, early 17th c.

Shoulders for a pair of munions. composed of 5 plates each. bottom plate with rolled edge.

plates

plates Late 16th cent.

5 plates from a pauldron. Plates originally atached with sliding rivets at the back and leathers at the front and center. Each plate decorated with an incised line. Bottom plate with a rolled and roped border.

German Gauntlets

German Gauntlets 2nd half 16th century

Pair of gauntlets of steel painted black, each with pointed flared boxed cuff made in two-pieces with bright turned and roped borders along the outside followed by a double flute with central cusp on the inside, and each struck with a Nuremberg mark and indistinct maker"s mark, "H" in a shield, roped boss over the ulna, five metacarpal plates above three finger-plates below, each of the latter with bright embossed and roped knuckle-plate and all articulated on rivets, the lower plates each with border en suite with the cuff, one with keyhole piercing engaging with a locking-stud on the inner wrist-plate, separate hinged thumb-defences of four plates each, and each incised with roman numeral assembly marks on the inside from "I" on the cuff to "XII" on the terminal plate. 36 cm. and 38 cm. long.

Italian Half Suit

Italian Half Suit circa 1570

Etched in the "Pisan" fashion. Comprising a cabasset, gorget, breast, back, tassets, pauldrons, arms and gauntlets. Etched overall with wide bands of decoration composed of a central region with figures, trophies and foliage bordered by 3 bands on each side, the central one roped. Pairs of medallions at the center of the neck on the breastplate, the bottom edge of the tassets and on the pauldrons. Decoration not an exact match on the pieces, but of very similar form. Cabasset of good form. Narrow brim with rolled and recessed border. Most original brass capped steel rivets with decorative washers. Some cloth lining band remaining between a few rivets. Point with a nice stalk, bent over to the back. Etched with 6 bands of trophies. Each side decorated with a central panel containing an armoured figure in antique style flanked by angels. Collar of 3 pieces front and back, the main plates with a rolled lower edge Neck plates associated. Pauldrons of 7 lames, 2 above and 4 below the large main plate (similar form and etching, but the right pauldron somewhat larger). Arms formed of a tubular upper cannon with rotating collar, lower cannon of inner and outer plates attached by pairs of hinges at the back and a pin on the inner plate engaging a hole in the outer plate, elbows of bracelet form with rolled edges on the wing attached to the uper and lower cannons by one articulating lame. Simple peascod breastplate with rolls at the neck, arms and between the tassets, the bottom edge of the breast flared to accept the tassets, etching at the arm holes simulating gussets. Gauntlets with bluntly pointed cuffs, the back of the hands covered by 5 lames, the last formed to the knuckles. Backplate with rolled borders at the neck, arms and bottom edge. Overall decorated with recessed bands and etching. The tassets formed of one piece with simulated lames. The surface overall rusted and cleaned. Much etching remains. Leathers and most rivets replaced. The tassets incorrectly cut apart and re-assembled. The 5 hand lames of the left gauntlet and the top plate of the left tasset replaced.

Breastplate

Breastplate Late 16th cent

Breastplate. Italian. Of peascod form with bold roped turn at the neck above a pair of volutes, medial ridge drawn up to a rounded point a the base and with short flanged skirt. Arms roughly incised in imitation of ropework. Roping on the upper roll appears to be filed. Starts with a central vertical line. Angled lines slant toward the center at the bottom on both sides. Pierced with two holes for a lance-rest on the right.

Height 15 3/8 in. to the center of the neck hole and 17 3/8 in. to a line between the top points. 10 1/2 in. wide at the waist and 13 3/8 at the corners under the arm hole. 9 in. wide at the top points. Neck roll is 5/16 in. wide and 1/2 in. high at the center, tapering to 1/4 in wide and 1/8 in. tall at the ends.

Thickness is affected by heavy tool marks on the inside. Many of these marks are .020 in depth, some up to .050. Material is .135-.175 in. thick at the lance rest holes. At the edge varies between .040 at the upper corner and .070 in the center, back to .050 at the waist. There is a very narrow thin band at the edge, increases to .090 in. app. one inch in from the edge. Center of breast varies between .150 and .170 in. There is a thinner area at the center crease that is app. 3/8 in. wide. Near the neck hole varies .110-.130. Some very small areas near the point of the peascod thin down to .085, but generally it is still .110-.140 in.

Pair of finger gauntlets.

Pair of finger gauntlets. late 16th-early 17th century

Of blackened steel, each comprising a flared, boxed cuff with low medial ridge, and slender turned and roped border with a line of domed brass-headed rivets, roped boss over the ulna, seven overlapping metacarpal plates, a knuckle plate embossed over each knuckle, and an additional plate to which the fingers are secured all articulated with on domed brass-headed rivets, overlapping finger plates riveted to leathers, separate hinged thumb guards and leather wrist straps with iron buckles. the final metacarpal plate is wider than the rest and is formed to the knuckle plate. Most of the rivets in the cuff, metacarpal and thumb are original. Remains of lining leathers. One of the wrist straps original. Some finger lames original (most often these are all modern replacements). The cuffs are formed of an inner and outer plate, riveted together. The inner plate is boxed to go over the vambrace but fit close the wrist. There are assembly marks in the metacarpal plates. The plate to which the finger leathers are secured has pairs holes at the inner edge for attachment of the finger leathers (these are not currently used, instead they are attached by single rivets at the center of the plate). From the collection of John Wilmot.

Mitten Gauntlet

Mitten Gauntlet late 16th century

Of russet steel. From the George F. Harding Collection, previously ex collection Henry Griffith Keasby

Pauldron

Pauldron late 16th century

Main plate with embossed sworls on front and back. Recessed borders. Large main plate with 2 upper plates. And 4 lower plates.

Couter (elbow)

Couter (elbow) circa 1570

South German for light field use. Possibly Augsburg. For the left elbow. Constructed in one piece to be secured to the arming doublet by laces. Open at the rear, with a medial ridge. Edges with notched inward-turned rolls with a band of etching along the border.

Pair of tasset lower plates

Pair of tasset lower plates circa 1580

Narrow rolled decoration with fine roping. Short sections of sunk border with additional recessed flute. Embossed decoration. Black ground with polished raised decoration of stylized leaves, vines and zoomorphic heads.

Italian Close Helmet

Italian Close Helmet circa 1580

One-piece skull, visor, upper and lower bevor and 3 neck lames front and back. The skull rising to a tall roped comb (small holes near the top of the comb and one small brazed repair) swepted slightly back, bordered by incised lines, with circular holes over the each ear in the form of a circle of 8 holes with a central hole. With a shaped plume-holder incised with chevrons at the base by one rivet on each side. Pointed visor with horizontal vision sight divided centrally, pointed lifting-peg fitting into the upper bevor. The upper bevor fits the visor exactly, the upper edge curved in at the back of the eyeslot. Pierced with circular breaths in the form of a circle of 8 holes with a central hole (matching the holes in the skull, but forming a larger circle). on the right and pivoted at the same points as the chin-piece. Chin-piece and upper bevor secured by hooks which engage in to flattened pegs pierced with a hole. Face hole of the chin-piece bordered by a roped inward-turned roll. Face edge of the skull plain with single engraved line. Lining rivets around the face hole flush on the outside. Three neck-plates at front and rear (lower two rear plates replaced), the bottom ones each with turned and roped border and an additional roped ridge parallel to the border. Similar to the helmet on B-13 from Mantova.

Italian Breastplate and Backplate

Italian Breastplate and Backplate circa 1580

Breast-plate of deep peascod form with medial ridge and two embossed volutes at the top, armhole gussets, single plate skirt, and later fixed lance-rest (removed). Tall inward-turned, finely roped rolls at the neck and armholes. The armholes on the main plate have a line incised parallel to the edge. Fauld lame with incised line parallel to the upper edge and inward-turned roped roll central arch. Steel buckles at the shoulders. Back-plate shaped to the back, embossed with rounded ribs in the form of a "V" towards the top and parallel to the arm holes. With incised vertical line at the center. Inward-turned, roped rolls at the neck, arms and on the edge of the narrow waist flare. Breast of heavier form, consistent with those made for cavalry use. Breast and back associated. Similar to those on B-13 from Mantova.

Breastplate - height 15 from base to center to neck hole. Width 10 in. at the waist and 13 1/2 in. under the arms. Neck roll 1/4 in. wide and 3/8 in. tall at the center. Backplate - height 14 3/4 in. widhth under the arms 14 3/4, 10 1/4 in. at the waist. 11 1/4 in at the upper edge.

Breastplate - thickness at the outer edge .035 at the upper corner under the arm to .080 near the waist. At the holes for mounting the lance rest .075-.110, primarily in the .080-.095 range. Center .110-.130 in. Upper area thins to .055 in. at the upper corner, but generally .070-.085 in. Peascod thins to .055 at some spots, but generally .065-.080 near the center. Overall, the center is app. .125 in. thick, tapers out to .070-.080 in. at the sides before thinning to app. .060 in. very near the edge and top. Backplate - varies between .022 in. and .060 in. Most of the area is .030 in. to .040 in. Thickness is much more variable. It does not seem to be intentionally thickened in any specific area.

Italian Gorget

Italian Gorget circa 1580

Gorget of two main plates with single neck-lames at the front and rear. The outer edges of the main plates are bordered by a half roll and recessed border, the laf roll roped. The neck edge of the main plates with matching roped half-rolls. The neck plates with roped full rolls. The neck plates are secured by an internal hinge at the left and a pin in the rear plate engaging a hole in the front plate on the right. The main plates are secured by a turning hook on the right which engages in a keyhole slot. Very similar to that on Corselet II.47 in the Royal Armouries (illustrated on plate LIX in European Armour in the Tower of London).

Tassets

Tassets circa 1580

Tassets each of five upward-lapping lames. The rounded bottom edge of the final lame with a full inward turn and parallel ridge, each roped. The ends of each plate with roped half-rolls. Each tasset with a central crease and small filed notch at the center of the top edge. Tassets originally designed for 3 buckles, re-fitted for 2 buckles to match the fauld lame on the breastplate A-114b. Right tasset with 2 notch assembly marks on inside of the plates.

Spaulder

Spaulder circa 1580

Formed of 7 upward-lapping plates. The top two plates are attached by a sliding rivet at the back, central leather and a rivet at the front. The remaining plates are attached with sliding rivets at the back and leather strips at the center and front. All leathers originally secured to the plates with 2 rivets on each plate. Full rolled and roped edges at the top, front and bottom. Raised edge at the rear. Very nice form, swelling up to fit the shoulder. Central crease.

Overall height 14 1/4 with the rear sliding rivets collapsed and 15 1/2 inches when extended (slots vary in length, generally 1/2-5/8 inch long and 2 are not presently sliding due to tight rivets and later internal paint), width 7 1/2 inches at the widest point and 5 1/8 inches at the elbow - measured roll to roll (the lower rear corner is curved in at the back so that the edges are 4 5/8 inches apart).

Greaves and Sabatons

Greaves and Sabatons circa 1580

The greaves formed of two plates front and back formed to the leg hinged on the outside and secured by pins on the inside. Each with a sabaton of 9 plates (4 small plates overlapping a larger center plate then 3 smaller and terminal plate overlapping the central plate in the other direction) with terminal plate of boxed form turned over at the front and sides. Main plates creased at the center of the front and back. Sabatons creased at the center of the 4 plates closest to the greave, the crease ending in the main central plate. Small inward-turned, roped rolls formed around a wire at the bottom of the greave plates and very small, fine outward turned roll at the top of the back plate (behind the knee). The rear plate pierced with a hole for the spur. An additional plate rivetted into the inside of the plate to provide a threaded attachment for the spurs. 2 hinges on the outside of each greave. Hinges fully wrapped. The barrels cut into 4 sections (2 on each side). The ends rounded and filed to form simple flowers. Stamped with curved accents to emphasize the shape. Attached to the front and rear by one rivet each. Sabaton plates attached by sliding rivets at each side and originally 2 leather straps (one on each side of the instep, most of the inner remaining on both). Remains of leather strap in the base of the toe plate to secure sabaton to the shoe. 18 in. tall. Sabaton 11 3/4 in. from the back of the heel to the front of the toe. 80 painted inside the back plate of the right greave. From the George F. Harding Collection

Gorget

Gorget circa 1580

Composed of a single plate front and rear of rounded form. Decorated with etched cabled bands filled with trophies-or-armour in the style typically described as "Pisan". Patches at the ends of the front plate at the pivot and closure. Originally would have had an additional pair of small neck plates.

Tasset end plate

Tasset end plate circa 1580

Single plate. Inward turned roll around the bottom edge extending up the sides. 2 keyhole slots at the top for attachment to the upper tasset plates. Embossed and recessed decoration with etching. Recessed border around the edge with etching. Central band of etching. Purportedly from the Madrid Real Armeria after the Spanish Civil War.

Crinet plates

Crinet plates circa 1580

3 plates, most likely the second, third and fourth plates from the head. Decorated with raised ovals bridging the plates. Etched decoration overall in the recessed aras and a narrows band of roped etching around the ovals. Retaining many original rivets including 2 rivets with decorative washers for securing straps. The plates were originally secured with central sliding rivets and leathers on each side. Purportedly from the Lisbon armoury.

Cuisse with poleyn

Cuisse with poleyn circa 1580

Comprising a one-piece cuisse with poleyn of 4 plates. The cop of deeply rounded form with a small wing. The edge of the cop rises to a point at the center, the outer edge of the lames are cut to form a point in the center and points over the rivets. The top edge of the cuisse, wing and bottom plate with inward-turned rolled roped edges. The rolls are fairly even, the one on the top of the cuisse does taper a little bit. The rolls on the edge of the cop wing are full rolls on the flat portion of the wing but they flatten out and finally disappear in the indented area. The cuisse is shaped to the thigh, creased at the center and has an additional raised and roped line parallel to the top edge. The leg has a band of etched decoration in the form of a set of trophies of armour flanked by roped bands along the center line. The band between the top roll and roped line is etched with a foliate design. The edges of the cop and lame are filed with a simple roped decoration and have notches at the center crease. There are single filed notches on the inner ends of the cop, lame, lower plate and cuisse. The image of the leg with the knee bent illustrates the extent of motion allowed by the armour (almost, it does move a little more under pressure). Strap mounting rivets remain near the top of the cuisse and on the cop. The lower lame has a central slot to be secured to the greave.

Height 14 1/4 in. tall.

Generally varies between .030 and .050 inch thick, mostly .035-.040 in. with some places where it is as thin as .020 in. on the lower plate.

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1580

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames. The upper and lower are secured by rivets which slide on long slots in the lower plate. The top edge of the turner is bordered by a narrow outward-turned roped roll . Where the plates overlap the roll is stepped to that it fits cleanly when fully extended. The two turner plates are overlapped, riveted and stepped so that the seam is flush on the outside. The cop of bracelet form which joins at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside (secured by 3 rivets on each side) and two pins on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. These have a typical Brunswick form with a crease along the outside. Most main rivets with dapped brass caps, many of them with rosette washers. There is a small clip on the inside of the turner which would secure the pauldron strap. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1580

Right arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 2 lames. The upper and lower are secured by a raised, roped ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flair in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the inside - the center of the flair - with a single lame above and below. The vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside and two pins on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. Many of the rivets - primarily those on the visible side - are capped with dapped brass caps. The four outer (visible) articulation rivets have brass rosette washers. The arm has a typical Brunswick form with a crease along the outside. There is a small clip on the inside of the turner which would secure the pauldron strap. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Cheek plates

Cheek plates circa 1580-1600

2 parts of a cheek plate - probably from a cabasset, possibly from a morion. These plates were originally of high quality. The rolled and roped border on the edges of the plates are tall, squared, and even. The roping is deep and crisp. The roll on the bottom plate is terminated cleanly with a step to allow the upper plate to overlap it. The bottom edge of the upper plate is cusped and beveled.

Western European Cabasset

Western European Cabasset circa 1580-1600

Tall form. Small flattened stalk. Narrow flat brim with rolled edge. Base of skull with row of iron lining rivets with decorative brass washers securing a cloth lining band. One small hole in the brim (probably used to hang the helmet). Indistinct mark on the brim. 8 inches tall.

German Black and White Cuirass

German Black and White Cuirass circa 1580-90

Comprising a heavy peascod breastplate with roped flanges at the neck and sliding gussets, the lower edge flanged for a skirt of 2 plates, the bottom one arched, turned and roped at the center, and matching three part backplate with separate riveted culet, the edges turned and roped, the surfaces throughout divided by bright bands and borders into blackened panels, rough from the hammer, and struck near the neck on both breast and back with the Nuremburg mark and a maker"s mark of a pair of shears in an inverted shield. The waist belt is a modern replacement. The shoulder straps are also replacements, though one is lacking. 5 of the 6 straps for the suspension of tassets remain and they are secured by 8 lobed roset washers. The fauld lames are slightly deformed. The right gusset, breastplate and both fauld lames are marked with a chiseled "X" assembly marks - the left gusset is different - possibly due to its having been for the left (it fits and matches the right in every respect). Breast mostly .090 inch thick tapering at the sides to app. .070.

Burgonet

Burgonet circa 1580-90

Burgonet. 2 piece skull with smooth surface. Extremely high, rear-swept comb. Pointed brim and tail integral to the bowl, each with rolled, roped and recessed borders. Small, original cheek plates with rolled, roped and recessed borders. The form of the bowl is remeniscent of morions at the time with aggressively pointed brow and neck. Shows signs of pitting and later cleaning. Rivets and decorative washers replaced.

Morion

Morion circa 1580-90

Morion. Formed in one piece with a high roped comb, the base of the skull encircled by lining rivets on brass washers, down-turned brim acutely drawn-up to sharp points, and fluted border with roped edge turned over wire. The comb with small lamination hole. Light pitting.

German/Austrian (possibly Gratz) Breastplate

German/Austrian (possibly Gratz) Breastplate circa 1590

Including 2 buckles at shoulders. Rolled edges at arm holes and neck, full flare at waist - used without any fauld lames. Simple peascod shape. This breastplate is relatively light and most likely sword proof and not shot proof. This item is very similar to large numbers of breastplates in the Arsenal in Graz. Its original blackened finish has been removed by cleaning with acid. Originally it would have been used with a pair of tassets suspended directly from the wide flare at the waist of the breastplate - taking the place of the fauld. The holes for the tasset straps are evident. Each tasset would have been suspended by 3 straps and buckles - the ones nearest the edge and center of the breastplate were attached by 2 rivets, the central one with a single rivet. Weight 3.5 lbs.

rough inner and outer surfaces, but roughly .050-.060 inch thick overall.

Pair of Gauntlets

Pair of Gauntlets circa 1590

A pair. Cuffs long, flaired and pointed with a central crease. Outer edge and wrist rolled inward and roped. The outer edge with an additional embossed and roped line. Raised over the ulna with a short roped line. Back of hand formed of 6 plates, the final one formed to the knuckles. Fingers and thumb of overlapping plates riveted to leathers by a single rivet in each plate. Assembly marks on the inside front edge of the metacarpal plates. Thumb attachd by a small hinge decorated with filed notches on each end.

German Burgonet

German Burgonet 16th century

This burgonet has a finish that was "rough from the hammer" - the helmet was shaped and plannished with a hammer to its final shape, but it was never ground to eliminate the hammer marks. There are signs that it was then left "black" - the oxidation from heating the helmet during its construction was not removed - and then probably painted. It has been cleaned recently such that much of the oxidation and any original paint have been removed. The lining is attached to two strips of leather which are riveted to the bowl of the helmet above the face and at the neck (these lines of rivets can be seen in the picture). This would originally have been the type of helmet that was kept in an arsenal and issued to soldiers. Unlike the highest quality custom burgonets, the cheek plates were not originally lined. One of the cheek plates is associated. Complete with tail lame, cheek plates and lining. Linings remaining in armour are very rare.

Burgonet - lining

Burgonet - lining 16th century

Interior view of burgonet. Shows the old lining - mostly detached, but retaining lining strip.

German Burgonet

German Burgonet 16th century

This is a good example of the type of helmet that would have been warn by the light cavalry units in all of the armies of western Europe during the second half of the 16th century. Originally (as now) with a polished surface. One piece skull. Nuremberg stamp. Good form overall. Lining rivets securing leather strips to skull. Rivets and leathers replaced. Helmet overall cleaned.

German Burgonet

German Burgonet 16th century

One piece polished skull. Nuremberg guild mark. This helmet retains its original plume holder. Provenance: Bischoff Collection, Vienna.

German outer plate from a black and white vambrace

German outer plate from a black and white vambrace 16th cent (late)

With complex raised decoration - probably from a highly decorated black and white 3/4 harness similar to examples in Graz. Shows signs of aggressive rusting and repainted black and cleaned raised surfaces.

Italian Tassets

Italian Tassets 16th c. (2nd half)

Composed of 9 lames. The edges of the plates rolled and roped. The upper plate with 2 holes for the attachment of the suspension buckles. The plates secured to each other by a row of sliding rivets at the outer edge and 2 rows of leathers (expertly replaced in the past). The tassets have been etched in the "Pisan" manner - with trophies of armor etc.

Knee lame

Knee lame 16th century

Filed notch decoration at crease, double incised lines at top, rolled and roped edge with recessed decoration border. Border includes an additional raised line. Old patch and 1 remaining brass-headed rivet on one end.

Gauntlet thumb

Gauntlet thumb 16th century

Thumb from a duelling gauntlet. The plates are attached to leather allowing them to move easily over one another. Original leather remains. The plates overlap in the opposite direction from normal gauntlets allowing it to be used for parrying.

Gauntlet (part)

Gauntlet (part) 16th century

Formerly in the collection of Leonard Heinrich - armourer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

German Morion

German Morion 16th cent (late)

Black and white. 2 piece bowl with a high comb. Brim with prominent upturned points at the front and back. Each side embossed with a large (simplified) fleur-de-Lys.

German Burgonet

German Burgonet 16th cent (late)

Of "Black and White" form with recessed bands on each side of the skull. High, roped comb. Neck plate and brim formed of separate plates, each with rolled, recessed and roped borders. Cheek plates with flared bottom (conforming to the neck plate), raised circle in the center and a raised edge at the face openning. Signs of delamination as is common with authentic pieces. Includes original patch at the tail flare and 2 rivets to stabilize laminations at the forhead. Extremely fine roping on the rolls. Right cheek plate replaced. Remains of original finish. Overall oxidized surface. Small holes in the comb.

Tasset plates

Tasset plates 16th cent.

3 plates from a tasset. Edges rolled. Bottom plate with turning pin for the attachment of extended lower tasset plates.

plates

plates 16th cent.

plates. 3 plates from a shoulder. Most likely from a pair of munions.

Piece of Mail

Piece of Mail 16th century

Piece of Mail labeled as German. Small brass borders. Wedge rivets.

European Mail collar

European Mail collar 16th century

Mail Collar. Formed of very small rings (app. 1/8 inch i.d.) of round cross section. Taper formed by the addition of a triangular gusset in the middle. 6 1/2 inches tall. Body of rivetted rings. Wedge rivets. Border of 3 rows of brass rings - 2 of solid punched rings and one riveted. Formerly in the collection of Leonard Heinrich - armourer to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

Piece of Mail

Piece of Mail 16th century

Piece of Mail. Rings of round cross section except at the overlap. All rings rivetted. Wedge rivets.

European Mail Shirt

European Mail Shirt 16th century

Shirt of mail. 16th century, likely German. Long sleeves. Rings of flattened form. Slight swells at the rivets. Wedge rivets. A band of smaller rings around the neck. Open at the front. Overall formed of alternating rows of solid and riveted rings. A band at the front on each side formed of all riveted rings. Rings in the body app. 5/16 in. i.d., often forming slight ovals instead of perfect circles. The smaller rings at the neck app. 3/16 in. i.d. The "collar" formed of 11 rows of small links and one row of normal sized rings at the border. App. half of the sleeves formed of somewhat heavier all riveted rings with cruder rivets. Careful inspection shows that this sleeve extension has been added with butted rings and is closed by a row of butted rings so this was almost certainly added after the working life of the shirt. Significant losses. Round brass collection tag with "707".

piece of mail

piece of mail 16th century

Piece of mail. 16th century, likely German. Alternating rows of riveted and solid rings. Flattish form with swelling at the rivet. Watershed form on both sides of the rivet overlap. Rivet heads pronounced on the outside and flush on the inside. Rivets seem to be wedge shaped. Some losses. 10 1/2 in tall, 35 in. wide with the mail stretched wide. Rings vary in size, in general the riveted rings are larger than the solid ones, all somewhat larger than 1/4 in. inside diameter. Solid rings vary in cross section - some very thin, some more washer-like. Some of the solid rings seem to have some flats on the outer edge as if they were punched from sheet and sometimes a ring overalapped the edge of a previous ring. Includes at least one spot near a current hole that includes 2 rings that appear to be working life repairs. They are in a solid row and show distinct round rivets.

Sample ring measurements - punched rings thickness - .050, .060, .082, .044, .055, .080, .060. Riveted rings thickness - .040, .055, .056, .045, .064. Outside diameter of riveted rings .415, .412, oval-ish one .400x.435. Inside diameter is hard to measure, but a few sample punched rings are .260 and a few sample riveted rings are .280.

Mail shirt

Mail shirt 16th

Mail Shirt hip length with short sleeves and collar. Open at the center of the neck. Rings of flattened form, entirely riveted. Wedge rivets. Collar of slightly heavier rings somewhat more crudely made. The rivet heads on the collar on the opposite side. This indicates the collar was added, almost certainly during the working life of the shirt.

Mail Sleeve

Mail Sleeve 16th century

Formed of small rings with app. 7/32 inch inside diameter measured with a ruler. Wire thickness measured with a dial gauge app. .030 in. OD of rings app. .270 varying noticably as many of the rings are slightly oval. For these rings the ID would be app. .210 inch or 5.4 mm. This is consistent with the rough measurement. The sleeve includes an area covering the shoulder and armpit, full sleeve with bend at the elbow and tapering to the form of the arm. Rings of rounded section with flattened area for the rivet. All rings riveted. Wedge rivets with the back set flush and front forming a a shallow point. Rings of consistent size. No signs of decorative rings at the edge of the gusset. There are a very few remaining rings that are likely brass at the cuff. Small losses, but relatively sound.

Mail Sleeve

Mail Sleeve 16th century

Formed of small rings with an inside diameter slightly over 5/32 inch. round section wire was used to make these rings. The rings in the body section are thicker than the rings at the end of the sleeves. In the body the wire is app. .038 in in diameter, the end of the sleeve is .029. The outside diameter of the rings is app. .240 in. With area covering the shoulder and armpit, full sleeve with bend at the elbow and tapering to the form of the arm. Iron rings of round cross section all riveted. The flattened area at the rivet is slightly bevelled on both sides forming a cross section that is roughly a diamond shape. Wedge rivets flush on the inside and forming a shallow point on the outside. Very small rings. Decorative border of copper alloy (brass) rings at the edge of the gusset and at the wrist. Border of alternating solid and riveted rings of 4 rows of solid and 3 rows of riveted rings. Small and medium losses, but overall form remains.

German Morion

German Morion circa 1600

Black and white. Typical of the Munich town guard. 2 piece bowl with a high comb. Brim with prominent upturned points at the front and back. Each side embossed with a large fleur-de-lys. Provenance: Ackermann Collection, Luzerne.

Western European Cabasset

Western European Cabasset circa 1600

Rounded bowl formed in one piece rising to a slight point at the center of the top. Creased along the center and with a small stalk bent backwards at the point. Narrow brim slightly down turned. Brim with inward turn and narrow recess at the edge. Bottom of the helmet bowl with holes for lining rivets. 14 holes. Helmet 7 1/4 inches tall. Inside of bowl 7 inches wide and 8 1/4 inches long. Brim app. 1 inch wide at the sides and app. 1 1/4 inches wide at the front and back point. Acid cleaned. All lining rivets missing. Originally smooth finish.

Western European Cabasset

Western European Cabasset circa 1600

Rounded bowl formed in one piece rising to a slight point at the center of the top. Creased along the center and with a small stalk bent backwards at the point. Narrow brim slightly down turned. Brim with inward turn and narrow recess at the edge. Bottom of the helmet bowl with holes for lining rivets. 14 holes. Helmet 7 1/4 inches tall. Inside of bowl 7 inches wide and 8 1/4 inches long. Brim app. 1 inch wide at the sides and app. 1 1/4 inches wide at the front and back point. Acid cleaned. All lining rivets missing. Originally smooth finish.

Breastplate

Breastplate circa 1600

Black. Heavy shot proof. with good full-form pinched peascod. Full inward turn at the neck. Simple flares at the arms and flared at the waist. There are signs of delamination on the inside. This breastplate seems to be formed of 2 layers of iron/steel. See ""Duplex armour: an urecognized mode of construction"" by de Reuck et. al. in Arms and Armour: Journal of the Royal Armouries Vol. 2 Number 1, 2005. Formerly in the Granscay collection (sold as part of lot 101, Sotheby"s European Works of Art, Arms and Armour, Furniture and Tapestries New York - Jan 13 and 15, 1992 - the second item in the lot).

Height 14 in. from the base to center of the neck hole. Width 11 in. at the waist and 13 in. under the arm holes.

Thickest part is at the base near the waist just outside the center on each side where it reaches .240 in. There are very few hammer marks in these thick areas. Generally thins to .170 in. near the edge and .110 - .140 in. at the upper corners and around the arm holes. Mostly .200 to .220 in. in the upper center. Peascod thins at the center (likely from forming the very aggresive crease) to app. .170 in.

Morion

Morion circa 1600

One piece german morion. High crest. Typical brim pointed at the front and back. Edge rolled and roped. Holes for lining and plume holder. There is a hole in the crest and there are 2 patches - one small one in the crest and one larger one on the bottom of the bowl. Both are old and possibly working life patches.

Burgonet

Burgonet circa 1600

Burgonet. Smooth surface. Nuremberg form. One piece bowl. High, straight comb. Brim formed of a separate piece. Original cheek plates with simple hole decoration. Original (probably from the manufacturing process) patch inside the edge of the skull under the right cheekplate. De-laminations in the bowl and brim. Tail plate missing.

German Morion

German Morion circa 1600

Morion. One piece bowl. High, roped comb. Brim with recessed border and rolled and roped edge. Complete with iron lining rivets (still holding internal leather strip) and plume holder. Clear (partial) Nuremberg mark on brim. From the collection of Ernst Holzscheiter. No signs of modern cleaning or restoration. A very good, untouched helmet with good form.

Backplate

Backplate circa 1600

Backplate. Probably German. High quality with engraved lines at the center of the back. Waist flared agressively. Rolled and roped borders on the arms, waist flare and neck. Arms, neck and waist flare also bordered by a shallow recessed band. Roped edges change angle of the roping at the middle reflecting higher quality work and more care than is usual on munition pieces. Hinged, threaded post at the waist for the attachment of a removable culet (rear portion of the fauld). This method of attachment is rarely illustrated since armours are not often illustrated from the back. For an illustration of this mechanism used to secure tassets to a breastplate see page 94-95 of Les armures des Rois de France au Musee de l"Armee (inv. G.196). The ends of the arm and waist rolls are stepped to allow the breastplate to overlap the backplate app. 3/4 inch. Remains of old cloth strip secured by rivets and washers inside the waist flare. Rivets are iron with brass caps. Rivets, washers and cloth appear to be working life. 2 brass-capped rivets on the right side of the waist with remants of leather remain. On the left side there is one rivet and one post with a horizontal hole (both with remains of leather as well). Rectangular iron roller buckles are secured to each shoulder by iron, sheet mounts. Height (neck to waist flare, inside) 14 1/2 inches, width at base of arm hole 12 5/8 inches, width at waist 11 inches, width of neck hole 6 3/8 inches, overall width at top 9 3/4 inches.

Gauntlet

Gauntlet circa 1600

Gauntlet. Full bell cuff. Metacarpal formed of articulated lames. Knuckle plate in the form of knuckles. Fingers and most of the thumb lacking. Base plate of the thumb protection remains. Shows atypical thumb protection used on some italian gauntlets where the entire thumb depends from a plate rivetted to the cuff instead of from a hinge attached to a metacarpal plate.

Breastplate

Breastplate circa 1600

Breastplate. Shot-proof breast made for use without fauld or tassets. Good, full peascod form. Heavy weight. Simple outward rolls a the neck and arms with some signs of roping. The material is thick enough that a simple narrow outward fold has been shaped to look like the more usual roll. Scalloped waist flare. Pairs of incised lines. Weight 15.5 lbs.

Height 15 1/2 in. from base to center of neck hole. 12 in. wide at the waist, 14 3/8 in. wide under the arm holes.

Thickness. Near the center, app. 1 in. from the crease the thickest point of the breastplate is .285 in. Generally the center is .220 - .260 in. Thins to .185 at the top of the shoulder extensions. Thins at the peascod to .165-.195 in. Central band forming the crease thins aggresively to .160-.195 in. Tapers to .104-.138 at the side under the arm holes.

Gorget

Gorget circa 1600

Gorget. Formerly part of a pair of munions. Formed of 2 plates, one front and one rear, attached by a rivet on the left and keyhole on the right. Smooth finish. Rolled edge at the neck hole. Neck hole unusually wide with almost no rise at the neck. Originally part of a black and white munion (signs of the bands are visible on the inside and traces on the outside).

Shoulder from a munion

Shoulder from a munion circa 1600

Formed of 5 plates attached with leathers at the back, center and front. The top plate relatively narrow and the bottom one with an inward-turned roll at the bottom.

Breastplate

Breastplate circa 1600

One piece breast with strong central crease terminating in a pinched peascod at the waist. Inward rolls at the arms and neck, arm rolls app. 1/4 in. diameter, the neck rolle larger, tapering from app. 3/8 in. at the center to 3/16 in. at the ends. One fauld lame attached by one rivet on each side and with a narrow arch at the center with a small inward roll. 2 old iron buckles at the shoulder. Interior of the breast (near the neck) and the fauld lame (at the center) marked with two punch assembly marks. Four holes for straps to suspend the tassts.

Measurements 13 1/2 in. tall from the center of the neck to the point of the peascod at the waist, 12 in. wide at the waist, 14 /12 in. wide under the arms, neck hole 7 3/4 in. wide.

Morion

Morion circa 1600

Black and White, formed of 2 pieces. Bowl with a wide raised stripe on each side. Tall, flat comb and narrow brim rising to a point front and back. Roped comb and brim. Retains all 10 lining rivets and 9 decorative brass washers.

Gorget

Gorget circa 1600

Formed of one large main plate front and rear with two neck lames front and rear. The upper neck lame with an inward-turned rolled and ropped upper edge. The upper plates secured by an integral hinge on the left and a pin engaging a hole on the right. Expertly releathered with buff leather.

Half Harness

Half Harness circa 1600

Composed. Consisting of a breastplate with central crease ending in a small peascod point at the waist. Neck and arms with turned edges rolled in. Single fauld lame at the waist. Gorget of 2 main plates with 2 neck lames front and back. The top edge of the top plate with a turned edge rolled in. The top plates are hinged at the left and secured by a pin on the right. The gorget includes integral shoulder protection of 5 lames on each arm. These are secured by sliding leathers at the back and leathers in the center and front. The picture of the inside of the gorget shows te position of the arm collapsed backward on the right and flexed forward on the left. This shows how the sliding rivets in the back allow the arm to lengthen and the leathers collapse to allow forward movement. The gorget and munions have been releathered with buff leather. Burgonet with a skull formed of one piece, brim formed of a separate piece secured inside the skull, 2 cheek plates secured by hinges. Edge of the brim and lower edge of the cheek plates with inward turned rolls. Neck lame missing. The elements of this armour are also illustrated separately. Elements are: A-134(breastplate), A-71(burgonet), A-159(gorget), and A-76(munions)

Gorget with munions and tassets

Gorget with munions and tassets circa 1600

Comprising a gorget of 3 plates front and back with integral shoulder protection of 6 plates (munions) and a pair of long tassets. Each with recessed polished bands in the main and raised bands on the secondary edges. All parts cleaned and releathered. Munions and tassets retain the buckles which appear to be replacements. The rolls on the bottom plate taper from the center. The inner edges of the top 3 plates are rolled and have recessed borders. The edges of these plates curve around the area where the cod piece might be. The tassets are assembled using sliding rivets along the outer edge and leathers at the center and inside.

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1600

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames, the upper lame retains 3 rivets which secured a leather tab to lace the arm to the sleeve. The upper and lower are secured by a raised ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flair in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace formed of an inner and outer plate secured by two external hinges on the inside and a pin on the outside. The main edges with inward turns. The surface is rough from the hammer with remains of oxide finish. There is a pin on the outside of the main plate of the turner to secure the arm to the pauldron and a rivet on the inside securing a piece of leather that would originally have been a loop to secure the pauldron strap. The main edges are decorated with incised lines. Many of the rivets retain dapped brass caps. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Arm harness

Arm harness circa 1600

Left arm formed of a tubular upper cannon fitted with a turner of 3 lames. The upper and lower are secured by a raised, roped ridge in the upper that is engaged by a flair in the lower plate. The cop of bracelet form joined at the back with a single lame above and below. The vambrace of slight tubular form constructed from an inner and outer plate secured by one inset hinge on the inside and a pin on the outside. The main edges with roped inward turns. The surface is rough from the hammer with remains of oxide finish. There is a pin on the outside of the main plate of the turner to secure the arm to the pauldron. The main edges are decorated with incised lines. Many of the original rivets with dapped brass caps remain. The upper plate retains the leather tab used to secure the arm to the arming doublet. The hole at the inside of the turner plate would have secured a leather loop to secure the pauldron strap. The cop is cracked in 2 places. Ex. Royal House of Hanover.

Cabasset

Cabasset circa 1600-1640

a rare German or Austrian Cabasset with the original rivets and the very rarely found original lining intact. The lining is composed of a single layer of fabric with fiber padding between it and the helmet bowl. The lining is sewn to a leather strip that it riveted to the edge of the helmet bowl. This cabasset has a couple of dings and dents and a minor split in its two piece construction. It is missing the checkpieces as is nearly the case in all surviving helmets of this type. As mentioned, this helmet is of two piece construction placing it within the 17th century, probably crafted between 1600 and 1640. It is believed to be German and Austrian as it was part of a castle/stronghold arsenal sold by Archduke Eugen in the mid to late 1920s. As such it was relatively well maintained which is why the lining survived. As you know, given their fragile nature and being prone to soiling and vermin, such linings are uncommon. This one is of fustian - a fabric composed of a linen warp and cotton weft. It is stitched to a leather strap which is attached to the helmet bowl by the lining rivets. It is partly detached but is all there. There is a hole in the brim for hanging in the guardhouse and armory, and there are four holes in the side where a plume or heraldic badge was at one time affixed. Incredible that it survived.

German Knee with lames and terminal plate

German Knee with lames and terminal plate circa 1620

For attachment to lamed legs. Seven total plates. Cop with central raised ridge, all plates with chiseled line borders, rolled edges and rivet decoration. From the Boston Museum of Fine Art - including 1929 acquisition number - 1099.29 Old de-lamination in some plates, old patch to lower plate. Possibly originally blackened.

Italian closed burgonet

Italian closed burgonet circa 1620

Skull formed of 2 pieces, the right side overlapping the left. Seam forms a crease, not a raised comb. 2 halves are riveted together. Decorative filing at the crease to simulate roping and a pair of parallel lines on each side of the roping. Matching parallel lines on the edges of the peak, bevor and neck lanes. Small movable peak of round form. Bevor extending up to cover the cheeks and form a "Y" shaped hole. Peak and bevor pivoted on the same rivets. Single neck lames at the front and back with rolled lower edges. Rolls decorated with simple filed roping. Bevor secured by later strap and buckle. Overall very light weight like many of the munition morions and open burgonets.

Arms

Arms circa 1620

2 similar arms. Both composed of upper cannon with turning collar, bracelet cop secured by 2 lames above and 2 lames below, lower cannon formed of 2 plates. In general plates with engraved line decoration. Rolls at the wrist, inner elbow and on the wing of the cop. One arm completely original, one with possibly associated lower vambrace.

Munion Shoulder

Munion Shoulder circa 1620

formed of x lames. 2nd lame with significant shape. Lower lame formed to the elbow with inward turn at the lower edge.

Knee

Knee circa 1620

from a 3/4 armour comprising the knee cop, large lower lame designed for use without a greave, 2 upper lames and a third detachable lame that originally formed the lower lame of the tasset. Embossed with a flower at the center of the knee and a raised, roped ridge from the flower to the center of the wing. Main outer edges with inward-turned rolled and roped borders. Wing with a recessed border. Rivets appear to be working life rivets. Knee plates secured to the tasset plate by a keyhole engaging a rivet on the outside and a keyhole with a turning hook on the inside. Main surface rough from the hammer. Flower polished. Thickness varies between app. .035 in. and .050 .in - mostly app. .040 in.

Continental Half Suit

Continental Half Suit circa 1640

Continental heavy trooper"s armour. It is composed of a bullet proof breastplate (the proof mark may be seen near the middle of the breast), a light backplate (most likely sword proof) and a lobster-tailed pot. These types of armours were worn with buff coats (heavy leather jackets that provided some protection against light weapons like swords). They were used during the mid 17th century - a typical armour of the English Civil War. The form of the breast is similar to that of several examples that have come from northern Europe (Denmark and Sweden). It has flared edges at the arms and waist. There was no need to use a full rolled edge - the in this thickness a flare provides all the strength necessary to deflect weapons. This breastplate was originally lined - it has pairs of holes around the edges for the attachment of a quilted lining. The helmet is typical of the era (especially for continental examples). It has a full "lobster tail" neck defense composed of 4 lames. On many of the cheaper examples the lames are simulated - these are separate plates. It retains its original cheek defenses and suspension loop at the apex of the bowl (this was used for storage, or to hang it from a hook on the backplate when not in use). The skull is decorated and stiffened by 6 raised ridges embossed into the skull. Each of the portions of this armour is stamped.The leather straps (and shoulder plates) have been replaced.

European Half Suit

European Half Suit circa 1640

A composed half suit of the Cromwellian era. Composed of a good lobster-tailed pot and a breast and back with integral collar. Helmet bowl formed in one piece with raised lines radiating from the center. Articulated tail formed of 4 plates each with rolled outer edges. Secured at the sides by articulating rivets and with the remains of a central leather. 2 cheekplaces with rolled edges and central perforation. Brim fixed to the bowl. Sliding nasal secured by a turn-screw with large flattened head. The center of the bowl has a loop secured through a round washer. Leather strips for securing the lining remain around the tail, cheek plates and bowl. Breast and back rough from the hammer with inward-turned rolls at the neck and arms of the breast and neck,arms and base of the waist flare on the back. Breast with 2 proof marks, most likely pistol given the moderate weight of the breast and minimal depth of the dents. All 3 parts marked. Breast with several marks. The first is the A surmounted by a helmet used by the London Armourer"s company between 1650 and 1660 during the inter-regnum. The others less distinct but probably an R - attributed to Francis Rolenson/Rawlinson - to the left of the crease, the last even less distinct, possibly MM. The inside is marked twice with paint, "219" and what appears to be "9R". Back marked with a L on the collar and the number 2188 below the right shoulder strap. The L is a common mark on English armours, but not currently attributed. The helmet is marked with an M at the point of the brim on the outside and a broad V on the inside of the brim. The breastplate is certainly of English manufacture. The back is associated and is probably English. The marks on the helmet resemble the marks used by the London Armourer"s company, but the one piece form is more typical of the continent and is possibly of German manufacture. Shoulder plates and waist belt replaced. Together with a modern copy of a buff coat and an inferior modern elbow gauntlet. For more information on armours and marks of the London Armourers see The London Armourers of the 17th Century"" by Thom Richardson.""

Backplate

Backplate circa 1640

One piece with integral collar. Flair at the waist. Rolls at the neck, arms and waist. Remains of stamps near the neck.

Backplate

Backplate circa 1640

One piece with integral collar. Flair at the waist. Rolls at the neck, arms and waist. Remains of stamps near the neck - IW and one less clear which appears to be an a surmounted with something (some version of the London Armourer"s company mark). IW is recorded as registered to John Wright between 1637-1647 and also seems to have been used by Joseph Whorewood between 1648 and 1678.

English Breastplate

English Breastplate circa 1640-1660

Simple 17th century form with small peascod point. Neck forming a raised collar (eliminating the need for a separate gorget). Neck and arm holes bordered by an engraved line and inward-turned rolls. Flair at the waist. Signs of 3 marks near the neck. One appears to be the "A" with something above - most likely the helmet - for the London Amour"s Company. The second appears to be the cross of St. George which was used as a government acceptance mark. The third resembles a crude inverted F. This breastplate shows no sign of a proof mark. Weight 9 lbs.

English Breastplate

English Breastplate circa 1650

Central crease, flared bottom. Rolls at the arm holes. Neck flared to form an integral collar with rolled edge. Pins for securing shoulder straps and belt clips. By Sylvester Keene. London Armourer"s company and SK mark. The central crease is very crisp and sharp. There are faint signs of a proof mark. The belt loops are forged - the upper part drawn out into a circle, the bottom slightly tapered and with a small roll at the end. The transition is not bent, you can see the thickness of the metal between the top that was drawn out sideways to form the circle and the bottom that was tapered and thinned. The inside is painted with what appear to be 2 large letters, a clear "E" and the remains of a "O" or "C".

Lobster-tailed pot

Lobster-tailed pot circa 1650

Deep, heavy bowl formed of 2 pieces joined at the center with a flat riveted seam. The seam is inset to that the outside is flush. There is an engraved/chiseled line on the other side of the seam to simulate a central band. The bowl is rough-from-the-hammer. Pointed, hinged fall with 3 bars covering the face. Tail of one piece simulating 3 lames. The outer border of the tail has an inward-turned roll and a parallel recessed border. Lining rivets around the front edge of the bowl and along the edge of the tail. Skull marked on one side near the bottom. This mark appears to be a crowned IR, relatively illegible. This appears to be normal - see The London Armourers of the 17th Century by Thom Richardson, page 19. Cheek plates missing. The 2 piece skull and 3 bar face are typical of English armour of the period.

Measurements: bowl 8 3/4 in. front to back, 6 3/4 in. side to side, 6 in. deep at the center, bars 6 1/2 in. from the base of the brim to the bottom of the point.

Thickness: Tail .040-.050 in., Brim mainly .040-.050 in. except at the corner and pivot area where it gets much thicker - app. .090 in. The bowl varies significantly in thickness. It is generally thinner at the bottom and thicker at the top. A sampling of measurements show .070, .150, .090. It is generally around .090-.120 but it varies significantly in a small area.

Knee cop

Knee cop 17th century

cuirassier knee cop.

Vambrace

Vambrace 17th century

Good "tulip" form. Rolled at the wrist. Hinges and pin attachment remain. Good, stable black patina.

Munion plates

Munion plates 17th cent.

3 plates from the shoulder of a munion. Bottom plate with a rolled border and buckle.

Buckle

Buckle 17th century or later

Of iron, Decorated. With later metal mount. Round tongue

Mail shirt

Mail shirt 17th century

Mail Shirt, probably Eastern European. Formed of varying size and thickness rings. The rings over the chest are much heavier than those in the skirt and sleeves. Formed of alternate rows of riveted and solid rings. The rings are 3/8in i.d. The rings at the chest are much thicker than those at the edges. The rings have a roughly "wankel" cross section. App. 31 inches long. Opens down the entire front. Details show rings from the collar, chest and skirt.

Mail shirt

Mail shirt 18th-19th century

Mail Shirt, eastern (probably). Small rings (app 1/4 inch i.d.) of round cross section. Overlaps heavily swelled and rivets set flush to ring surface. The torn rings show that the rivets were wedge shaped. 44 inches long. Neck opening includes a small slit in the front where there is overlapped mail.

Tasset

Tasset 20th cent.

Tasset. Gothic style with rolled edges and one buckle remaining.

Gauntlet

Gauntlet 20th century

Flaired cuff with rolled and roped border with recessed band. Wrist lame. Back of hand formed of 9 plates, the next to last with raised, roped central band, the final plate formed the fingers. Seprate plate ove trhe base of the thumb. Thumb and fingers covered by overlapped plates. On a custom hand form which originally formed part of a full body form. Formed part of a model armour.

Buckle

Buckle 2nd half of the 16th century

Made and mounted for use as a shoulder buckle on a breastplate. Cut from sheet and filed. Tongue formed from thinner sheet, tapering to a point. The mounting plate is attached to the rear portion of the buckle so that the strap can pass under the breastplate when in use. Most likely German

Rondel

Rondel circa ?

rondel for an armet. Heavily cusped edge, fluted. Rough. Pitted and cleaned. With central post for attachment to helmet

Maker

Maker"s ring circa ?

Maker"s mark ring from a shirt of european mail.

Piece of Mail

Piece of Mail circa ?

Piece of mail.

Piece of Mail

Piece of Mail circa ????

Piece of Mail

Piece of Mail

Piece of Mail circa ????

Small piece of Mail. Each ring stamped with parallel lines. Wedge rivets of brass.




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This site last updated Fri Mar 25 19:58:28 EDT 2011